SM Rathnasiri Bandara1*, S Samita2, SS Hettiarachchi3 and SMTN Senanayaka4
1Senier Medical Officer and an Inverter, Department of Outpatient Department, Teaching Hospital Peradeniya, Sri Lanka
2Senior Professor Department of Crop Science, Professor of Statistics, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka
3M.Sc. in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology by Coursework, Former Teaching Assistants, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka
4Medical Students, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ruhuna, Sri Lanka
*Corresponding Author: SM Rathnasiri Bandara, Senier Medical Officer and an Inverter, Department of Outpatient Department, Teaching Hospital Peradeniya, Sri Lanka.
Received: March 30, 2020; Published: April 24, 2020
The novel coronavirus disease 2019 caused by the SARS-Cov-2 virus belonging to the coronaviridae family to which SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV belonged. Therefore, viral immunopathology and treatment plane of COVID-19 have been explained based mainly on SARS-CoV2 as well as the known similar viral immunopathology to SARS. The major pathogenic mechanisms of COVID-19 include excesses activation of cytokines and chemokines, deficiencies in the innate immune response, direct involvement of immune cells, direct viral cytopathic effects, down-regulation of lung-protective angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), autoimmunity and genetic factors. The key factors seem that both abnormal immune responses and injury to immune cells increase in the production of inflammatory cytokines, autoantibodies and complement proteins leading to tissue damage. For these possible and obvious immunes - mediated life-threatening complications of viral infection, antiviral drugs, interferon, hydroxyl chloroquine, and TMPRSS2 inhibitor have been used in standard protocol against the COVID-19 immunopathology. It seems to have a lack of efficacy of the drugs due to the inability to stop all vulnerable steps of the immune pathology of the disease. Therefore, there is still no recognized or recommended or standard immune regulative treatment plan for COVID 19. Thus, considerations of all these backgrounds, “5S 5T Approach to battle COVID-19 approach including new corticosteroids protocol for COVID-19 and has been introduced targeting to stop or suppress life-threatening immune pathology of SARS-2 infection. It is also included the other alternative methods practiced by general community and traditional approaches. Especially the steroids protocol has been planned in the review with deeply considering avoiding the experience of unsuccessful approaches that caused many harmful effects such as high motility, viremia, increased viral load, no effect, side effect, fungal illness, hyperglycemia, and secondary infections. This review has been considered and described immunological changes in each phase of viral illness and the effective steroid protocol to manage at the pre-preliminary phase, early phase, and middle phase, severe/critical phase and post-viral infected phase (post COVID19 complication syndrome). This new protocol that is open to change and alteration is proposed.
Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-2; Corticosteroids Protocol; Viral Immunopathology
Citation: SM Rathnasiri Bandara., et al. “COVID-19 Treatment and Post-COVID-19 Complication Syndrome: A Review". Acta Scientific Microbiology 3.5 (2020): 103-118.
Copyright: © 2020 SM Rathnasiri Bandara., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.