Acta Scientific Microbiology (ASMI) (ISSN: 2581-3226)

Review Article Volume 3 Issue 4

Novel Coronavirus-2019 (COVID-19)- A genetically mutant of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome β-Coronavirus

Khan Salman1*, Singh Priti2, Zefenkey Zean3 and Salieva Rana4*

1Assistant Professor, Department of Pathological Analysis, Knowledge University, Erbil, Iraq
2International Medical Faculty Osh State University, Osh, Kyrgyzstan
3Lecturer, Department Pathological Analysis, Knowledge University, Erbil, Iraq
4Lecturer, Department of Pulmonary, Osh state university, Osh, Kyrgyzstan

*Corresponding Author: Khan Salman, Assistant Professor of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Department of Pathological Analysis, Knowledge University, Erbil, Iraq.

Received: March 26, 2020; Published: April 01, 2020

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Abstract

  Many coronaviruses (CoVs) causing a variety of pathological disease in animals and maintained their cycle in nature and causing zoonotic infections, allowing them for genetic recombination, resulting in novel viruses. Seven CoVs have been isolated from the infected humans; causing mild to severe disease in humans, newly emerged from a zoonotic source that are 229E, OC43, HKU1, NL63, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-(SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS-CoV) and Novel CoV in 2019 (nCoV-19). SARS-CoVs have been isolated during 2002 - 2003 outbreak in China. MERS-CoV was responsible of an outbreak in Middle East during 2012-2015 resulted by the genetic recombination in camels and transmitted to humans. nCoV-19 is responsible for an ongoing outbreak of severe respiratory disease which was first reported from china in December 2019 and their genome is significantly different from SARS-CoV to be considered a new human-infecting β-CoV which might be using their spike protein to bind to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor (ACE2R) expressed on alveolar epithelial type II cells using it for their replication. ACE2R is also found in many extrapulmonary tissues like kidney, heart, endothelium, and luminal surface of intestinal epithelial cells which enforced to focused for fecal-oral transmission and containment of viral spread and multi-organ dysfunction in patients. ACE2R regulates both the cross-species and human-to-human transmissions and also suggesting that bats might be the original host of nCoV-19. CoVs transmitting predominantly during the winter season in temperate-climate countries. CoVs can be diagnosed by serological tests, cultured by cell culture techniques and Nucleic acid amplification tests, and gene sequencing for the confirmatory tests. Currently, there is no vaccination to prevent the patients by nCoV-19. Only prevention is the best way to avoid being exposed to this virus. Favilavir, Chloroquine and Remdesivir drugs are under trials. nCoV-19 might be neutralized by providing high dose of soluble form of ACE2 and might recover cellular ACE2 activity by negative feed back system of renin angiotensin and protect the lung injury. Protein S1 domain of Spike-subunit based vaccine produced by Cell lines method, Inhibitor of transmembrane protease serine 2 to inhibit entry and viral spread can be try to curb this virus.

Keywords: Novel Coronaviruses 2019; Coronaviruses; COVID-19; Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2; Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome

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Citation

Citation: Khan Salman., et al. “Novel Coronavirus-2019 (COVID-19)- A genetically mutant of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome β-Coronavirus".Acta Scientific Microbiology 3.4 (2020): 225-232.



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