Acta Scientific Microbiology (ASMI) (ISSN: 2581-3226)

Conceptual Volume 3 Issue 2

Could Hdfx Ameliorate the Infections and Potential Courses of Hepatocarcinomas and Cirrhosis Induced by Hepatitis B

Burton M Altura1-6*, Asefa Gebrewold1,5,6, Anthony Carella1,5,6 and Bella T Altura1,3-6

1Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, the State University of New York Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York, USA

2Department of Medicine, the State University of New York Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York, USA

3The Center for Cardiovascular and Muscle Biology, the State University of New York Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York, USA

4School of Graduate Studies in Molecular and Cellular Science, the State University of New York Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York, USA

5Bio-Defense Systems, Inc, Rockville Centre, the State University of New York Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York, USA

6Orient Biomedica, Estero, Florida, the State University of New York Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York, USA

*Corresponding Author: Burton M Altura, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, the State University of New York Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York, USA.

Received: December 16, 2019; Published: January 08, 2020

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  Globally, hepatitis B infection is a major public health problem, and infected patients can remain asymptomatic for decades. Approximately 90% of the world’s population currently reside in regions of very high and intermediate hepatitis B infection [1]. These patients often, without knowing it, can transmit the virus to other family members, friends, and others carrying diverse diseases. Almost one million people /year die of complications due to infections caused by hepatitis B, including hepatocarcinomas and cirrhosis [2]. In the USA, today, there are as many as two million people living with chronic hepatitis B, who are totally unaware of their infection [3]. Interestingly, approximately 95% of the people with chronic hepatitis B infection come from intermediate/high prevalence countries, primarily due to a lack of screening [2-4]. About 260 million people worldwide are living with chronic hepatitis B infections [3-6].

  Major concerns in the inflammatory events produced by hepatitis B viruses (HBV) in the liver center on the loss of immunocompetence of CD4 T-lymphocytes, CD8 T-lymphocytes, natural killer (NK) cells, Kupffer cells, and “pit cells” [4-11]. These cell types are normally “geared” to produce diverse antiviral molecules (i.e., interferons, tumor necrosis-alpha, and a number of interleukins) [7-11]. HBV not only severely hampers the production of these protective antiviral molecules, but results in reduction of these critical cell types in the liver [7,10,11]. So, in our opinion, any effective therapeutic measures against HBV infections, and the sequelae of events leading to cirrhosis and/or hepatocarcinomas, should focus on restoring these vital cell types and their immunocompetence, and thus prevent initiation of inflammatory events in the liver.

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References

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  3. World Health Organization Hepatitis B fact sheet (2007). 
  4. Cohen C., et al. “Is chronic hepatitis B being undertreated in the United States?” Journal of Viral Hepatitis 18 (2011): 377-383.
  5. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention  Surveillance for Viral Hepatitis-United States (2014). 
  6. Terrault N., et al. “AASLD Guidelines for treatment of chronic hepatitis B”. Hepatology 63.1 (2016): 261-283.
  7. Washington K. “Inflammatory and infectious diseases of the liver”. In: Gastrointestinal and Liver Pathology. Incobuzio CA, Montgomery EA, eds. Churchill-Livingstone, London (2005).
  8. Majno G and Joris I. “Cells, Tissues and Diseases, 2nd edn”. Oxford University Press, New York (2004).
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  11. Trepo C., et al. “Hepatitis B infection”. Lancet 384 (2014): 2053-2063.
  12. Altura BM. “Role of reticuloendothelial and endothelial cells in response to shock and trauma”. In: Pathophysiology of Combined Injuries and Trauma, Conklin JT, ed. University Park Press, Baltimore (1985).
  13. Altura BM. “Endothelial and reticuloendothelial cell function: roles in injury and low-flow states”. In: The scientific Basis for the Care of the Critically Ill., Little RA, Frayn KN, eds. Manchester University Press, Manchester (1986): 259-274.
  14. Altura BM., et al. “A novel biologic immunomodulator, HDFx, protects against lethal hemorrhage, endotoxins and traumatic injury: potential relevance to emerging diseases”. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine 2 (2009): 266-279.
  15. Altura BM., et al. “HDFx: a novel biologic immunomodulator is therapeutically-effective in hemorrhagic and intestinal ischemic shock: importance of microcirculatory-immunological interactions and their implications for the warfighter and disaster victims”. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine 4 (2011): 331-340.
  16. Altura BM., et al. “HDFx: A novel immunomodulator for the amelioration of hypovolemic shock in the OR, cancer patients and on the battlefield”. Journal of Clinical Medicine and Therapeutics 1.1 (2016): e002.
  17. Altura BM. “HDFx: A novel immunomodulator and potential superbug super-warrior for hospitalized patients and battlefield casualties”. International Journal of Vaccine Research 3.1 (2016): 1-3.
  18. Altura BM., et al. “HDFx: A recently discovered biologic and its potential use in prevention and treatment of hemorrhagic fever viruses and antibiotic-resistant superbugs”. Jouranl Hematol and Thromboemb Dis 4.4 (2016).
  19. Altura BM., et al. “HDFx: A potential new treatment and prophylactic against nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and subsequent hepatocellular carcinomas: Is hypomagnesemia a complication of the disease?” Journal of Alcoholism and Drug Dependence 4 (2016): 1000e133.
  20. Altura BM., et al. “HDFx: A novel immunomodulator and potential fighter against cytokine storms in inflammatory and septic conditions in dogs and farm animals”. International Journal of Veterinary Health Science and Research 5 (2017): 1-3.
  21. Altura BM., et al. “A novel biologic immunomodulator may have the potential to prevent bacteria in space from becoming aggressively infectious and lethal”. Clinical Research and Trials 3 (2017): 1-3.
  22. Altura BM and Altura BT. “HDFx: A novel biologic immunomodulator for potential control of NK cell and macrophage dysfunction in drug-resistant tuberculosis”. Journal of Clinical Medicine and Therapeutics 2.3 (2017): 20.
  23. Altura BM and Altura BT. “Could HDFx, a recently discovered biologic immunomodulator that accelerates wound healing, ameliorate complications after orthopedic surgeries?” EC Orthopedics 7.5 (2017): 207-210.
  24. Altura BM and Altura BT. “Use of HDFx, a novel immunomodulator, to stop germs from winning in hospitals and on the battlefield: the danger of antibiotic resistance”. International Journal of Vaccine Research 4.1 (2017):1-2.
  25. Altura BM., et al. “HDFx: A novel immunomodulator for the amelioration of hypovolemic shock in the OR, Cancer patients and on the battlefield”. Journal of Clinical Medicine and Therapeutics 1.1 (2016): e03. 
  26. Altura BM., et al. “HDFx: a novel biologic immunomodulator accelerates wound healing and is suggestive of unique regenerative powers: potential implications for the warfighter and disaster victims”. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine 5 (2012): 289-295.
  27. Altura BM and Altura BT. “HDFx for the prevention and treatment of vasodilatory septic shock: A personal perspective”. Vascul Dis Ther 2.6 (2017): 1-3. 
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Citation

Citation: Burton M Altura., et al. “Could Hdfx Ameliorate the Infections and Potential Courses of Hepatocarcinomas and Cirrhosis Induced by Hepatitis B". Acta Scientific Microbiology 3.2 (2020): 31-33.



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