Acta Scientific Microbiology (ISSN: 2581-3226)

Review Article Volume 3 Issue 1

Current Status of Mycoplasma Gallisepticum in Chickens and Associated Risk Factors in Pakistan

Muhammad Farhan Qadir1*, Quratulain2 and Sandhya Ashok3

1College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Shanxi Agricultural University, PR China
2Para Veterinary Institute Karor (Layyah Campus) University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Pakistan
3Department of Microbiology, University of Karachi, Pakistan

*Corresponding Author: Muhammad Farhan Qadir, College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Shanxi Agricultural University, PR China.

Received: December 04, 2019; Published: December 23, 2019



   Avian species are suffered with many infectious and non-infectious diseases in which Mycoplasma gallisepticum is one of vital importance. Infected chickens can be diagnosed on the basis of clinical signs including coughing, sneezing, nasal discharge, foamy secretions in the eye, open mouth breathing, tracheal rales, reduced feed intake, drop in egg production in layers and decrease in weight gain. It is transmitted by both ways that is horizontal and vertical. Its prevalence is different in several regions of the country and current status is described in this paper. Diagnosis of Mycoplasma can be done by different serological tests including Serum plate agglutination test, Hemagglutination inhibition test and Enzyme linked Immunosorbent assay, whereas molecular detection can be done by Polymerase chain reaction. Serological tests are used for initial screening of flocks while confirmatory diagnosis can be done by molecular methods. Infection can be controlled by screening the breeder flock, vaccination of layer chicks and culling of infected flocks because if flock is infected, it remains for full life, so whole flock should be destroyed to avoid the further transmission from parent flock to offspring.

Keywords: Mycoplasma gallisepticum; Current Status; Poultry; Mycoplasmosis; Pakistan



  1. Sadiq M. “Pakistan poultry sector still on an upward swing”. World Poultry 20 (2004): 10-11.
  2. Davis BD., et al. "Infecções bacterianas e micóticas”. São Paulo (SP), EDART (1973).
  3. Charlton BR., et al. “In: Charlton BR, editor. Avian disease manual”. Kennett Square, Pennsylvania, American Association of Avian Pathologists, USA (1996): 115-125.
  4. Markham FS., et al. "Pleuropneumonia-Like Organisms in the Etiology of Turkey Sinusitis and Chronic Respiratory Disease of Chickens”. Poultry Science5 (1952): 902-904.
  5. Delaplane JP., et al. "The Propagation of a Virus in Embryonated Chicken Eggs Causing a Chronic Respiratory Disease of Chickens”. American Journal of Veterinary Research 4 (1943): 325-332.
  6. HW YJ. “Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection”. Ames: Iowa State University Press, USA (1991): 198- 212.
  7. Brown DR., et al. "Revised Minimal Standards for Description of New Species of the Class Mollicutes (Division Tenericutes)”. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 11 (2007): 2703.
  8. Manual OIE Terrestrial. "Manual for Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals, Chapter 2.2. 4”. Nosemosis of honey bees. office International des Epizooties (2008).
  9. Jalaladdini SM., "Isolation and Identification of Mycoplasma Gallisepticum in Chickensbn from Industrial Farms in Kerman Province”. International Journal of Advance Biological and Biomedical Research 2 (2014): 100-104.
  10. Levisohn S., et al. "Avian Mycoplasmosis (Mycoplasma Gallisepticum)”. Revue Scientifique et Technique-Office International des Epizooties2 (2000): 425-434.
  11. Allan WH., et al. "A Standard Haemagglutination Inhibition Test for Newcastle Disease. A Comparison of Macro and Micro Methods”. Veterinary Record6 (1974): 120-123.
  12. Courtney CH., et al. "Evaluation of Heartworm Immunodiagnostic Tests”. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 6 (1990): 724-729.
  13. Czifra Gy., et al. "Evaluation of a Monoclonal Blocking Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for the Detection of Mycoplasma Gallisepticum-Specific Antibodies”. Avian Diseases3 (1993): 680-688.
  14. Reddy MR. “Prevalence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection in Indian poultry farms”. International Conference on Animal and Dairy Sciences, September, 15-17th, HICC, Hyderabad, India (2014).
  15. Carli KT., et al. "Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction for Detection of Mycoplasma gallisepticum in Chicken Trachea”. Avian Diseases3 (2003): 712-717.
  16. Mukhtar M., et al. "Seroprevalance of Mycoplasma Gallisepticum among Commercial Layers in Faisalabad, Pakistan”. Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences1 (2012): 183-186.
  17. Seifi S. et al. “Risk factors and seroprevalence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection in broiler breeder farms in Mazandaran province, north of Iran”. Revue de Medicine Veterinaire5 (2012): 215-218.
  18. Ahmad A., et al. "Status of Igg Antibodies against Mycoplasma Gallisepticum in Non-Vaccinated Commercial Poultry Breeder Flocks”. International Journal of Poultry Science2-3 (2008): 61-63.
  19. Atique MA., et al. "Identification of Avian Mycoplasma Species in Commercial Broilers and Layers with Respiratory Symptoms in Balochistan”. African Journal of Biotechnology100 (2012): 16557-16559.
  20. Arshad A., et al. "Development of Duplex PCR Assay for the Detection of Mycoplasma Gallisepticum and Mycoplasma Synoviae Prevalence in Pakistan”. International Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances3 (2013): 114-119.
  21. Rauf M., et al. "Identification of Mycoplasma Gallisepticum by Polymerase Chain Reaction and Conventional Diagnostics from White Leghorn Layer Flocks”. Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences2 (2013): 393-397.
  22. Qadir MF. “Epidemiological status of Mycoplasma gallisepticum in layer chicks at Faisalabad, Pakistan. M. Phil. Thesis, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan (2017).
  23. Hussain A., et al. "Prevalence of Mycoplasma Gallisepticum in Ross-308 Broiler Breeder through the Contrast of Serological Assessments in Pakistan”. Journal of Dairy Veterinary and Animal Research1 (2018): 00185.
  24. Shah AH. "Seroprevalance of Mycoplasma Gallisepticum and Mycoplasma Synoviae in Commercial Broilers and Backyard Poultry in Five Districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa-Pakistan”. Pakistan Veterinary Journal2 (2018): 149-152.


Citation: Muhammad Farhan Qadir., et al. "Current Status of Mycoplasma Gallisepticum in Chickens and Associated Risk Factors in Pakistan". Acta Scientific Microbiology 3.1 (2020): 120-123.


Acceptance rate30%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days

Indexed In

News and Events

  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is June 25, 2024.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of "Best Article of the Issue"
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.

Contact US