Ovia Kenneth1, Beatrice Ugbo1, Iroha Ifeanyichukwu2 and Chika Ejikeugwu2*
1Department of Biological Science (Microbiology), Evangel University Akaeze, Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria 2Department of Applied Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria
*Corresponding Author: Chika Ejikeugwu, Department of Applied Microbiology, Faculty of Sciences, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria..
Received: April 20, 2018; Published: July 02, 2018
Citation: Chika Ejikeugwu., et al. "Extended Spectrum Β-Lactamase (ESBL) Expression in Escherichia coli Isolates from Anal Swabs of Donkeys in a Local Donkey Abattoir in Abakaliki, Nigeria”. Acta Scientific Microbiology 1.8 (2018).
Extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) are enzymes that give some Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Klebsiella species the exceptional ability to resist the antimicrobial action of third-generation cephalosporins including cefotaxime, ceftazidime and ceftriaxone. This study detected the presence of ESBL-producing E. coli isolates from anal swabs of donkeys in a local donkey abattoir. A total of thirty (30) anal swab samples were collected from the anal region of the donkeys; and these were bacteriologically analyzed for the isolation of E. coli All samples were cultured on MacConkey agar plates and eosin methylene blue agar plates for the isolation of E. coli isolates after prior cultivation in nutrient broth tubes. The E. coli isolates was identified using conventional microbiology techniques. ESBL production was detected phenotypically using the double disk synergy test (DDST) technique, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion technique. A total of 25 E. coli isolates was isolated from the 30 anal swab samples. The E. coli isolates showed high resistance rates to the antibiotics especially to the 3rd-generation cephalosporins, and the monobactam, aztreonam. The result of the antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed that most of the E. coli isolates where found to resist the antibiotic action of some of the tested antimicrobial agents particularly cefoxitin (32%), ceftriaxone (60%), cefotaxime (100%), cefuroxime sodium (100%), aztreonam (100%) and cefepime (66.7%). Out of the 25 E. coli isolates phenotypically screened for ESBL production, only 10 E. coli isolates were suspected to produce ESBL by the screening test using cefotaxime, and cefuroxime, ceftriaxone as the screening antimicrobial agents. However, ESBL production was phenotypically confirmed in only two (2) isolates of E. coli (representing 8 % of the total isolates) using the DDST technique. In conclusion, our study presumptively revealed that the E. coli isolates from this particular donkey abattoir are multidrug resistant in nature; and they also express ESBL phenotypically. Adequate measures are required for the handling of animals in order to avoid horizontal transmission of the ESBL-producing bacteria to humans. However, the prohibition of the use of antibiotics in animal husbandry as well as proper hygienic practices are recommended as measures to keeping antibiotic resistant bacteria at bay.
Keywords: ESBLs; Gram Negative Bacteria; Escherichia coli; Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing; Nigeria
Copyright: © 2018 Chika Ejikeugwu., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.