Effect of Chlorpyrifos and Malathion on Soil Microbial Population and Enzyme Activity
Abhishek Walia1*, Kamaljeet Sumal2 and Sudesh Kumari
1Assistant Professor and Head, Department of Microbiology, DAV University, Jalandhar, Punjab, India
2Research Scholar, Department of Microbiology, DAV University, Jalandhar, Punjab, India
*Corresponding Author: Abhishek Walia, Assistant Professor and Head, Department of Microbiology, DAV University, Jalandhar,
Punjab, India. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
February 01, 2018; Published: March 12, 2018
Pesticides are chemical substances that are used for the protection of crop, plants and vegetables from various insects. Repeated
applications of pesticides contaminate the soil and also disturb the soil environment by affecting soil microflora and various physi
cochemical properties of soil. In view of above problem, the present study examines the effect of different concentrations of chlorpy
rifos and malathion (10 - 1000 ppm) at different incubation period for their impact on various soil microflora and enzyme activities
in soil collected from cauliflower field of Jalandhar, Punjab (India). Lower concentration of malathion and chlorpyrifos is beneficial
but higher concentration lead to reduction in microbial action in soil. After 250 ppm more declination was found in bacterial popula
tions. Similar results were found in case of actinomycetes populations. However, use of Malathion drastically decreased the fungal
population but chlorpyrifos does not have adverse effect on the number. In soil enzyme activities, low conc. has no effect on amylase
but activity slightly decreased after 500 ppm. Stimulatory effect in cellulase was found at low conc. and inhibitory effect at higher
concentrations. Low conc. is beneficial for P- solubilising bacteria but at higher conc. it showed deleterious effect on the phosphatase
enzyme. These results concluded that these pesticides have considerably deleterious impact on soil microflora, which may be results
in harmful effect on nutrients uptake and plant growth. Malathion showed more adverse effect as compared to chlorpyrifos. This
research area merits enhanced future research based on molecular technique, contrary to traditional approach, which are used for
quantification of net impact on soil biology.
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos; Malathion; Amylase; Cellulase; Phosphatase; Microbial Population
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