Acta Scientific Microbiology

Research Article Volume 1 Issue 3

Antimicrobial Activity of Extract from the Abdominal Gland of African Weaver Ants ( Oecophylla longinoda ) on the Microorganisms Isolated from Cocoa Pods

Oladunmoye Muftau K1, Isijola Samuel O1 and Oladosu Tolulope O2*

1Department of Microbiology, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria
2Department of Biological Sciences, Bells University of Technology, Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria

*Corresponding Author: Oladosu Tolulope O, Department of Biological Sciences, Bells University of Technology, Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria.

Received: January 22, 2018; Published: February 21, 2018

DOI: 10.31080/ASMI.2018.01.0028

Citation: Oladunmoye Muftau K., et al. “Antimicrobial Activity of Extract from the Abdominal Gland of African Weaver Ants ( Oecophylla longinoda ) on the Microorganisms Isolated from Cocoa Pods”. Acta Scientific Microbiology 1.3 (2018).


Abstract

  This research was conducted to investigate into the antimicrobial potency of the abdominal gland extract of African Weaver Ant (AWA) against microorganisms isolated from Cocoa pods. Six (6) fresh samples of both infected and uninfected Cocoa pods gotten from a village farm in Ibule-soro, Ondo State were transferred to the laboratory under aseptic conditions. One gram from the pod of each sample was subjected to microbial analysis for isolation and the antimicrobial effects of the AWA abdominal extract was sub- sequently evaluated. Selected conventional antibiotics were used as controls. Bacterial isolates obtained were Bacillus subtilis, Pseu- domonas aeruginosa, Serratia fonticola, Proteus penneri, Enterobacter cloacae, Citrobacter freundii, Edwardsiella tarda, Klebsiella oxy- toca and Proteus mirabilis , while fungal isolates were Aspergillus aculeatinus, Alternaria sp., Chloridium chlamydosporis, Aspergillus niger, Phytophthora palmivora, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus tamari, Fusarium sp., Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium camemberti, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomycodes ludwigii . Four of all the bacterial isolates ( Bacillus subtilis, Edwardsiella tarda, Proteus penneri, Proteus mirabilis ) used for this study exhibited high levels of sensitivity to the abdominal gland of African weaver ants with the following zones of inhibition: 19 mm, 19 mm, 20 mm and 21 mm respectively. Similarly, fungal isolates were observed to be sen- sitive to the Oecophylla longinoda abdominal extract, with Aspergillus flavus having the highest zone of inhibition (14.89 mm). This research reveals the potentials of abdominal extracts from African weaver ants ( Oecophylla longinoda ) in antimicrobial capacities against most aetiological agents of Cocoa diseases.

Keywords:Cocoa; Oecophylla Longinoda ; Antibacterial; Antifungal

Bibliography

  1. Acebo-Guerrero Y. , et al. “Management of black pod rot in Cacao (L.): A review”. Fruits 67.1 (2012): 41-48.
  2. Iremiren G O. “Soil fertility and ageing cocoa farms in Nigeria”. WCF Part- nership Meeting and Round Table Session, Accra 16 (2011): 26-27.
  3. Gorenz A M and Okaisabor E K. “Phytophthora pod rot disease in Nigeria. In progress in Tree Crop Research in Nigeria (2 nd Edition) Cocoa Research Institute Nigeria Ibadan (1971): 124-133.
  4. Bowers J H., et al . “The Impact of Plant Diseases on World Chocolate Prod”. Plant Health Progress (2001).
  5. Maddison A C and Ward M R. “The International Black Pod Projects: 1979 Review”. Proceedings of 7 th International. Cacao Research. Conference Douala, Cameroon (1981): 261-266.
  6. Gregory P H. “Speculations on Phytophthora as a cacao root pathogen”. Proceedings of 7 th International. Cacao Research. Conference Douala, Cameroon (1981): 267-269.
  7. Purdy L H. “Fungal diseases of cacao. In: Research methodology in biocon- trol of Plant diseases with special reference to fungal diseases of cocoa”. Workshop Manual CATIE, Tirrialba, Costa Ric. Eds : U Krauss, P Hebbar (1999): 7-18.
  8. Opoku I Y., et al . “Phytophthora megakarya: a potential threat to the co- coa industry in Ghana?” Ghana Journal of Agricultural Science 33.2 (2000): 237-248.
  9. Friedrich T. “Agricultural Pesticide Application. FAO Agricultural Engi- neering Branch AGSE”. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome (1996).
  10. Meijden G Van der. “Pesticide Application Techniques in West Africa”. A study by the Agricultural Engineering Branch of FAO through the FAO Re- gional Office for Africa 17 (1998).
  11. Way M J and Khoo K C. “Role of ants in pest management”. Annual Review of Entomology 37 (1992): 479-503.
  12. Van Mele P. “A historical review of research on the weaver ant Oecophylla in biological control”. Agriculture for Entomology 10 (2008): 13-22.
  13. Peng R K and Christian K. “Effective control of jarvis’s fruit fly, Bactrocera jarvisi (diptera: Tephritidae), by the weaver ant, Oecophylla smaragdina (hymenoptera: Formicidae), in mango orchards in the northern territory of Australia”. International Journal of Pest Management 52.4 (2006): 275- 282.
  14. Peng R K., et al. “Implementing ant technology in commercial cashew plantations and continuation of transplanted green ant colony monitor - ing. W04/088. Australian Government”. Rural Industries Research and De - velopment Corporation (2004).
  15. Peng R K and Christian K. “Integrated pest management in mango or - chards in the Northern Territory Australia, using the weaver ant, Oeco- phylla smaragdina (Hymenoptera : Formicidae), as a key element”. Inter - national Journal of Pest Management 51.2 (2005b): 149-155.
  16. Dejean A. “Orcadian rhythm of Oecophylla longinoda in relation to ter - ritoriality and predatory behavior”. Physiology Entomology 15.4 (1990): 393-403.
  17. Vayssieres J F., et al. “Field observational studies on circadian activity pat - tern of Oecophylla longinoda (latreille) (hymenoptera: Formicidae) in relation to abiotic factors and mango cultivars”. International Journal of Biological Chemical Science 5.2 (2011): 790-802.
  18. Dejean A. “Adaptation of Oecophylla longinoda to spatiotemporal varia- tions in prey density”. Entomophaga 36 (1991): 29-54.
  19. Chen Y and Alue R D. “Ants used as food and medicine in China”. The Food Insects Newsletter 7 (1994): 1-10.
  20. Oudhia P. “Traditional medicinal knowledge about red ant Oecophylla sma- ragdina (Fab.)” [Hymenoptera; Formicidae] in Chhattisgarh, India”. Insect Environment 8 (2002): 114-115.
  21. Arnold B. “Fungal endophytes of tropical trees: Methods and potential for biological control of fungal pathogens of cocoa. Research methodology in biocontrol of plant diseases with special reference to fungal diseases of cocoa”. Worshop manual, CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica Edited by Ulrike Krauss and Prakash Hebbar (1999): 44 -54.
  22. Evans H C. , et al. “Endophytes and mycoparasites associated with an indig- enous forest tree, Theobroma gileri, in Ecuador and preliminary assess - ment of their potential as biocontrol agents of cocoa diseases”. Mycological Progress 2.2 (2003): 149-160.
  23. Rubini M R., et al. “Diversity of endophytic fungal community of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) and biological control of Crinipellis perniciosa, causal agent of Witches’ Broom Disease”. International Journal of Biologi- cal Science 1.1 (2005): 24-33.
  24. Fawole M O and Oso B A. “Characterization of bacteria: Laboratory Manu - al of Microbiology”. 4 th Edition, Spectrum Books Limited, Ibadan, Nigeria (2007): 24-33.
  25. Cheesbrough M. “District Laboratory Practice in Tropical Countries”. 2 nd Edition, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK (2006): 165-176.
  26. Vidhu V V and Evans D A. “Ethnoentomological values of Oecophylla”. Cur - rent Science 109.3 (2015): 573.
  27. Nasril N. “Black pod disease caused by Phytophthora palmivora in as- signed center production in West Sumatra Indonesia”. Research Journal of Pharmaceutical Biological and Chemical Sciences 7.4 (2016): 1759-1760.
  28. Vanderplank F L. “The bionomics and ecology of the red tree ant, Oeco- phylla species and its relationship to the coconut bug Pseudotheraptus wayi Brown (Coreidae)”. Journal of Animal Ecology 29 (1960): 15-33.

Copyright: © 2018 Oladosu Tolulope O., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.



Member In






News and Events

  • Submission Timeline
    Last date for submission of articles is June 30, 2019.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Papers of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of “Best Article of the Issue”.
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.
  • Contact US