Acta Scientific Dental Sciences (ASDS)(ISSN: 2581-4893)

Review Article Volume 8 Issue 5

A Double Threat to Oral health: The Inflammatory Processes of Diabetes and Tobacco Use

Jezelle Sonnier1*, Gail Cherry-Peppers1, Gillian Robinson-Warner1, Lisa Slade1, Joy Jordan1, Toni Adderly1, Pamela Brady1, Sharon-Long-Stokes4, Gretchen Peppers3 and Andrew Boston3

1Research Committee, Doctor of Dental Surgery, Office of the Dean, Howard University College of Dentistry, Washington, DC, United States of America (USA)
2Associate Dean for Research, Chair, Research Committee, Howard University College of Dentistry, Washington, DC, USA
3Summer Student Research Committee, Howard University College of Dentistry/Howard University College of Dentistry, USA
4Volunteer Clinical Consultant, Howard University College of Dentistry, Washington, DC, USA

*Corresponding Author: Jezelle Sonnier, Research Committee, Doctor of Dental Surgery, Office of the Dean, Howard University College of Dentistry, Washington, DC, United States of America (USA).

Received: March 19, 2024; Published: April 05, 2024


The incidence debilitating conditions such as diabetes and risk factors such as the use of tobacco products continue to climb, so does the need for better understanding of these complex conditions. Long-term presence of diabetes and tobacco use may result in deterioration. Additionally, diabetics who use tobacco products have many adverse oral conditions. Of these factors, inflammatory responses represent a complex interplay and offers a unique challenge. Strong medical consultation team approaches contribute to improving outcomes of diabetes and its comorbid disorders.

Keywords: Oral Health; Diabetes; Inflammation; Tobacco Use; Multi-System Decline


  4. Boutagy NE., et al. “Metabolic endotoxemia with obesity: Is it real and is it relevant?”. Biochemistry 124 (2016): 11-20.
  5. Somma F., et al. “Oral Inflammatory Process and General Health Part 1. The focal infection and the oral inflammatory lesion”. European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences12 (2010).
  6. Segura-Egea JJ., et al. “Impact of Systemic Health on Treatment Outcomes in Endodontics”. International Endodontic Journal 2 (2023): 219-235.
  7. Tomar SL and Winn DL. “Chewing tobacco use and dental car­ies among U.S. men”. Journal of the American Dental Associa­tion 130 (1999): 1601-1610.
  8. Zhang W., et al. Frontiers of Immunology 13 (2022):
  9. Gupta S., et al. “Status of Tobacco Smoking and Diabetes with Periodontal Disease”. Journal of Nepal Medical Association 213 (2018): 818-824.
  10. Hasturk H and Kantarci A. “Activation and Resolution of Periodontal Inflammation and Its Systemic impact”. Periodontology Disease 1 (2000): 255-273.
  11. Fouad AF and Burleson J. “The effect of diabetes mellitus on endodontic treatment outcomes: Data from an electronic record”. Journal of the American Dental Association 134 (2003): 43-51.
  12. Cherry-Peppers G., et al. “A Review of the Risks and Relationships Between Oral Health and Chronic Diseases”. Journal of the National Medical Association1 (2024): 1-7.
  13. Kane SF. “The effects of oral health on systemic health”. Genetical Dentistry6 (2017): 30-34.
  14. Cherry-Peppers G., et al. “Oral Mucosal Membrane Exposure and Adverse Health Risks Due to the Use of Smokeless Tobacco”. Scientific Cancer Biology 11 (2020): 10-16.
  15. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). “Tobacco smoke and involuntary smoking tobacco and tobacco specific nitrosamines”. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcino­genic Risks to Humans Lyon France: IARC 89 (2007): 33-187.
  16. Tomar SL and Henningfield JE. “Review of evidence that pH is a determinant of nicotine dosage from oral use of smokeless tobacco”. Tobacco Control 6 (1997): 219-225.
  17. National Cancer Institute. Smokeless tobacco or health: an in­ternational perspective. Smoking and tobacco control mono­graph no. 2. Publication no. 92-3461. Bethesda, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Cancer Institute (1992).
  18. Lee J., et al. “Cigarette smoking and Inflammation : Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms”. Journal of Dental Research12 (2012): 142-149.
  19. Macfarlane GD., et al. “Refracttory periodontitis associated with abnormal polymorphonuclear leukocytes”. Journal of Periodontology 63 (1992): 908-913.
  20. Pappas S. “Toxic elements in tobacco and in cigarette smoke: inflammation and sensitization”. Metallomics11 (2011): 1181-1198.
  21. Zhou L., et al. “Placity of CD4 T-cell lineage differentiation”. Immunity 30 (2009): 646 – 655.
  22. Fisher , et al. “Periodontal disease as a risk marker in coronary heart disease and chronic kidney disease”. Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension 19.6 (2010): 519.
  23. Tsalamandris S., et al. “The role of inflammation in diabetes: Current Concepts and Future Perspectives: European Cardiology Review1 (2019): 50-59.
  24. Ueta E., et al. “Prevalence of diabetes mellitus in odontogenic infections and oral candidiasis”. Journal of Oral Pathology and Medicine 22 (1993): 168-174.
  25. Iwama A., et al. “The effect of high sugar intake on the development of periradicular lesions in rats with Type 2 diabetes mellitus”. Journal of Dental Research. 82 (2003): 322-325.
  26. Ferreira MM., et al. “Diabetes Mellitus and Its Influence on the success of Endodontic Treatment: A retrospective clinical study”. Acta Medica Portuguesa 1 (2014): 15-22.
  27. Rodríguez-Rodríguez N., et al. “Wound chronicity, impaired immunity, and infection in diabetic patients”. MEDICC Review24 (2022): 44-58.


Citation: Jezelle Sonnier., et al. “The Effect of Two Lasers, Lx16, and Denlase on the Rise of Temperature on the External Root Surface of the Root Canals: An In Vitro Study".Acta Scientific Dental Sciences 8.5 (2024): 23-26.


Copyright: © 2024 Jezelle Sonnier., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Acceptance rate30%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days
Impact Factor1.278

Indexed In

News and Events

  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is July 30, 2024.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of "Best Article of the Issue"
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.

Contact US