Acta Scientific Dental Sciences (ASDS)(ISSN: 2581-4893)

Research Article Volume 7 Issue 5

Role of Direct Current Electrical Stimulation in Dental Implant Osseointegration - A Pilot Study

Barin LM1*, Barcelos RCS3, Palma VM2, Pillusky FM2, Kantorski KZ2,4, Maciel RM2 and Danesi CC2,5

1Department of Dentistry, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, RS, Brazil
2Post-Graduation Program in Dental Sciences, Federal University of Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS, Brazil
3Post-Graduation Program in Pharmacology, Federal University of Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS, Brazil
4Department of Stomatology, Federal University of Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS, Brazil
5Department of Pathology, Federal University of Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS, Brazil

*Corresponding Author:Barin LM, Department of Dentistry, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, RS, Brazil.

Received: May 04, 2023; Published: May 27, 2023

Abstract

This study evaluated the effect of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) using methylene blue (MB) solubilized in ethanol as an adjuvant in periodontal treatment. One hundred and twenty Wistar rats were randomly divided into five experimental groups: negative control (NC, no periodontitis, n = 15) and positive control (PC, with periodontitis, without any treatment, n = 15). The other three groups had periodontitis and were treated with scaling and root planing (SRP, n = 30); SRP + aPDT + MB solubilized in water (aPDT I, n = 30); SRP + aPDT + MB solubilized in ethanol (aPDT II, n = 30). Periodontitis was induced by placing a cotton ligature around mandibular right first molar of each animal. The ligature was removed after 7 days and the treatments were applied. At 7, 15 and 30 days rats were euthanized and bone and gingival tissues were collected for histomorphometric and immunohistochemical analysis. The SRP group showed a delay in relation to elimination of the inflammatory infiltrate; aPDTs groups showed absence of inflammatory infiltrate in 7 days; aPDT II showed absence of leukocyte infiltration at 30 days. The treated groups showed no difference and low staining in relation to VEGF, while PC group showed intense immunopositivity. The aPDT provided better responses to the periodontal tissue compared to SRP alone in short-term. aPDT II demonstrated greater repair capacity in short-term and especially in long-term. VEGF was very intense in periodontitis in PC group, showing a relation at the inflammatory degree and disease progress.

Keywords: Ethanol; Inflammation; Periodontal Diseases; Photosensitizing Agents; Therapeutics; Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor

References

  1. Kinane DF and Lappin DF. “Clinical, pathological and immunological aspects of periodontal disease”. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica 59 (2001): 154-160.
  2. Ng K-T., et al. “Expression of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α in Human Periodontal Tissue”. Journal of Periodontology 82 (2011): 136-141.
  3. Moens S., et al. “The multifaceted activity of VEGF in angiogenesis - Implications for therapy responses”. Cytokine and Growth Factor Reviews 25 (2014): 473-482.
  4. Chatzopoulos G., et al. “Expression of angiogenesis-stimulating factors (VEGF, CD31, CD105) and angiogenetic index in gingivae of patients with chronic periodontitis”. Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 2 (2014): 554-564.
  5. Vasconcelos RC., et al. “Immunoexpression of HIF-1 α and VEGF in Periodontal Disease and Healthy Gingival Tissues”. Brazilian Dental Journal 27 (2016): 117-122.
  6. Turer CC., et al. “Effect of Non-surgical Periodontal Treatment on Gingival Crevicular Fluid and Serum Endocan, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-A and Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Levels”. Journal of Periodontology 88 (2016): 493-501.
  7. Adriaens PA., et al. “Ultrastructural observations on bacterial invasion in cementum and radicular dentin of periodontally diseased human teeth”. Journal of Periodontology 59 (1988): 493-503.
  8. Alvarenga LH., et al. “Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans biofilm can be inactivated by methylene blue-mediated photodynamic therapy”. Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy 12 (2015): 131-135.
  9. Berakdar M., et al. “Comparison between scaling-root-planing (SRP) and SRP/photodynamic therapy: six-month study”. Head and Face Medicine 8 (2012): 12.
  10. Prażmo E., et al. “Photodynamic Therapy As a Promising Method Used in the Treatment of Oral Diseases”. Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine 25 (2016): 799-807.
  11. Carvalho AS., et al. “Photodynamic therapy reduces bone resorption and decreases inflammatory response in an experimental rat periodontal disease model”. Photomedicine and Laser Surgery 29 (2011): 735-740.
  12. de Almeida JM., et al. “In Vivo Effect of Photodynamic Therapy on Periodontal Bone Loss in Dental Furcations”. Journal of Periodontology 79 (2008): 1081-1088.
  13. Prates RA., et al. “Histomorphometric and microbiological assessment of photodynamic therapy as an adjuvant treatment for periodontitis: a short-term evaluation of inflammatory periodontal conditions and bacterial reduction in a rat model”. Photomedicine Laser Surgery 29 (2011): 835-844.
  14. Akram Z., et al. “Effect of photodynamic therapy and laser alone as adjunct to scaling and root planing on gingival crevicular fluid inflammatory proteins in periodontal disease: A systematic review. Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy 16 (2016): 142-153.
  15. Sgolastra F., et al. “Effectiveness of diode laser as adjunctive therapy to scaling root planning in the treatment of chronic periodontitis: a meta-analysis”. Lasers in Medical Science 28 (2013): 1393-1402.
  16. Pillusky FM., et al. “Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy with photosensitizer in ethanol improves oxidative status and gingival collagen in a short-term in periodontitis”. Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy 19 (2017): 119-127.
  17. Barin LM., et al. “Role of the adjunctive antimicrobial photodynamic therapy to periodontal treatment at plasmatic oxidative stress and vascular behavior”. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology 173 (2017): 538-544.
  18. Meisel P and Kocher T. “Photodynamic therapy for periodontal diseases: State of the art”. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B 79 (2005): 159-170.
  19. Prochnow E., et al. “Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy Antimicrobial photodynamic effect of phenothiazinic photosensitizers in formulations with ethanol on Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms”. Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy 13 (2016): 291-296.
  20. Madianos PN., et al. “Generation of inflammatory stimuli: How bacteria set up inflammatory responses in the gingiva”. Journal of Clinical Periodontology 6 (2005): 57-71.
  21. Garcia VG., et al. “Effect of the concentration of phenothiazine photosensitizers in antimicrobial photodynamic therapy on bone loss and the immune inflammatory response of induced periodontitis in rats”. Journal of Periodontal Research 49 (2014): 584-594.
  22. Garcia VG., et al. “Treatment of experimental periodontal disease with antimicrobial photodynamic therapy in nicotine-modified rats”. Journal of Clinical Periodontology 38 (2011): 1106-1114.
  23. Oliveira PGFP., et al. “Adjunctive effect of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy in induced periodontal disease. Animal study with histomorphometrical, immunohistochemical, and cytokine evaluation”. Lasers in Medical Science 31 (2016): 1275-1283.
  24. Oliver RC., et al. “The correlation between clinical scoring exudate measurements and microscopic evaluation of inflammation in the gingiva”. Journal of Periodontal Research 4 (1969): 160.
  25. Ünlü F., et al. “Expression of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Human Periodontal Tissues: Comparison of Healthy and Diabetic Patients”. Journal of Periodontology 74 (2003): 181-187.
  26. Ferrara N. “Molecular and biological properties of vascular endothelial growth factor”. Journal of Molecular Medicine (Berl) 77 (1999): 527-543.
  27. Holzhausen M., et al. “Effect of selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition on the development of ligature-induced periodontitis in rats”. Journal of Periodontology 73 (2002): 1030-1036.
  28. Almeida JM., et al. “In vivo effect of photodynamic therapy on periodontal bone loss in dental furcations”. Journal of Periodontology 79 (2008): 1081-1088.
  29. Garcia VG., et al. “Treatment of experimental periodontitis in rats using repeated adjunctive antimicrobial photodynamic therapy”. Lasers in Medical Science 28 (2013): 143-150.
  30. Artese L., et al. “Immunoexpression of Angiogenesis, Nitric Oxide Synthase, and Proliferation Markers in Gingival Samples of Patients With Aggressive and Chronic Periodontitis”. Journal of Periodontology 81 (2010): 718-726.
  31. Johnson RB., et al. “Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors and Progression of Periodontal Diseases”. Journal of Periodontology 70 (1999): 848-852.
  32. Pradeep a R., et al. “Gingival crevicular fluid and serum vascular endothelial growth factor: their relationship in periodontal health, disease and after treatment”. Cytokine 54 (2011): 200-204.
  33. Prapulla D V., et al. “Gingival crevicular fluid VEGF levels in periodontal health and disease”. Journal of Periodontology 78 (2007): 1783-1787.
  34. Chapple CC., et al. “Vascular remodelling in chronic inflammatory periodontal disease”. Journal of Oral Pathology and Medicine 29 (2000): 500-506.
  35. Smiley CJ., et al. “Systematic review and meta-analysis on the nonsurgical treatment of chronic periodontitis by means of scaling and root planing with or without adjuncts”. Journal of the American Dental Association 146 (2015): 508-24.e5.
  36. Shimizu N., et al. “Inhibition of prostaglandin E2 and interleukin 1-beta production by low-power laser irradiation in stretched human periodontal ligament cells”. Journal of Dental Research 74 (1995): 1382-1388.
  37. Dai T., et al. “Photodynamic therapy for localized infections--state of the art”. Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy 6 (2009): 170-188.
  38. Cetinkaya BO., et al. “The Expression of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in a Rat Model at Destruction and Healing Stages of Periodontal Disease”. Journal of Periodontology 78 (2007): 1129-1135.
  39. Kranti K., et al. “Immunoexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor and Ki-67 in human gingival samples: An observational study”. Indian Journal of Dentistry 6 (2015): 69-74.
  40. Booth V., et al. “Vascular endothelial growth factor in human periodontal disease”. Journal of Periodontal Research 33 (1998): 491-499.
  41. Malaguarnera L., et al. “Action of prolactin, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha and LPS on heme oxygenase-1 expression and VEGF release in human monocytes/macrophages”. International Immunopharmacology 5 (2005): 1458-1469.
  42. Folkman J and Klagsbrun M. “Angiogenic factors”. Science 235 (1987): 442-447.
  43. Battino M., et al. “Antioxidant status (CoQ10 and Vit. E levels) and immunohistochemical analysis of soft tissues in periodontal diseases”. Biofactors 25 (2005): 213-217.
  44. Lucarini G., et al. “Involvement of vascular endothelial growth factor, CD44 and CD133 in periodontal disease and diabetes: an immunohistochemical study”. Journal of Clinical Periodontology 36 (2009): 3-10.
  45. Kasprzak A., et al. “Expression of angiogenesis-stimulating factors (VEGF, CD31, CD105) and angiogenetic index in gingivae of patients with chronic periodontitis”. Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 50 (2012): 554-564.

Citation

Citation: Barin LM.,et al. “Effects of Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy on the Periodontal Tissues: Histomorphometric and Immunohistochemical Analysis".Acta Scientific Dental Sciences 7.6 (2023): 47-55.

Copyright

Copyright: © 2023 Barin LM.,et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.




Metrics

Acceptance rate30%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days
Impact Factor1.278

Indexed In





News and Events


  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is May 30, 2024.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of "Best Article of the Issue"
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.

Contact US