Acta Scientific Dental Sciences (ASDS)(ISSN: 2581-4893)

Research Article Volume 7 Issue 4

Effect of Citric Acid and Chlorhexidine on the Implant Surface-an Invitro Experiment

Priyanka Bawane Singhal1, K Chandrasekharan Nair2* Vahini Reddy3 and Chiranjeevi Reddy3

1Former Senior Lecturer, YMT Dental College, Navi Mumbai, India
2Professor Emeritus, Department of Prosthodontics, Sri Sankara Dental College, Akathumuri, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India
3Former Professor, Department of Prosthodontics, AECS Maaruti College of Dental Sciences, Bangalore, India

*Corresponding Author: K Chandrasekharan Nair, Professor Emeritus, Department of Prosthodontics, Sri Sankara Dental College, Akathumuri, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India.

Received: March 01, 2023; Published: March 30, 2023

Abstract

Objectives: To find out and compare the effect of citric acid and chlorhexidine on the surface roughness and elemental composition of dental implants and to find out the effect of duration and concentration of citric acid and chlorhexidine treatment on the surface of dental implants..

Material and Methods: 135 specimens were prepared by sectioning 15 dental implants and abutments. These were embedded in polyvinylsiloxane putty blocks such that the sectioned surface was exposed. The specimens were subjected to the various surface treatments viz; immersion in 30%, 40%, 50% and 60% citric acid and 0.2% chlorhexidine for different durations viz; 40 sec, 60 sec and 80 sec. Surface roughness and elemental composition of the specimens were analysed using profilometer, scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive spectroscopy respectively, before and after immersion in different solutions. Data obtained was statistically analysed using factorial ANOVA..

Results: The highest mean surface roughness on implant specimens was obtained with 50% citric acid and the least roughness was observed with 30% citric acid. On the abutment specimens, the highest mean surface roughness was observed with a concentration of 40% citric acid and the least roughness was with 30% citric acid. Chlorhexidine showed lower roughness both in implant and abutment specimens. The elemental analysis for implants as well as abutments showed decrease in elemental titanium with increase in surface roughness. The greatest concentration of elemental titanium was present at 30% citric acid for 40 sec and 0.2% chlorhexidine at 40 sec for implants, and 30% citric acid for 60 sec and 0.2% chlorhexidine at 40 sec for abutments..

Conclusion: Surface treatment of dental implants and abutments with citric acid and chlorhexidine increased the surface roughness. The surface roughness of implants and abutments increased along with an increase in the duration of immersion in Citric acid and Chlorhexidine. Increase in surface roughness of implants and abutments caused a decrease in elemental titanium concentration. Titanium concentration is maintained when implants and abutments are treated with 30% citric acid. The clinically acceptable concentration of citric acid is 30% for 40 sec and 0.2% chlorhexidine for 40 sec to be used in surface conditioning decontamination of failing implants.

Keywords: Implant; Abutment; Citric Acid; Chlorhexidine; Surface Roughness; Elemental Composition

References

  1. Busenlechner D., et al. “Long-term implant success at the Academy for Oral Implantology: 8-year follow-up and risk factor analysis”. Journal of Periodontal and Implant Science 44 (2014): 102-108.
  2. Yang., et al. “The survival rates and risk factors of implants in the early stage: a retrospective study”. BMC Oral Health 21 (2021):
  3. Chrcanovic BR., et al. “Analysis of risk factors for cluster behavior of dental implant failures”. Clinical Implant Dentistry and Related Research 19 (2017): 632-642.
  4. Renvert S., et al. “Non-surgical treatment of peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis: a literature review”. Journal of Clinical Periodontology 35 (2008): 305-3
  5. Zitzmann NU and Berglundh T. “Definition and prevalence of periimplant diseases”. Journal of Clinical Periodontology 35 (2008): 286-2
  6. Kotsovilis S., et al. “Therapy of periimplantitis:a systematic review”. Journal of Clinical Periodontology 35 (2008): 621-62
  7. Vilarrasa J., et al.In vitro evaluation of a multispecies oral biofilm over antibacterial coated titanium surfaces”. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B 29 (2018):
  8. Misch CE., et al. “Implant success, survival, and failure: the International Congress of Oral Implantologists (ICOI) Pisa Consensus Conference”. Implant Dentistry 17 (2008): 5-
  9. Patil C., et al. “Effectiveness of Different Chemotherapeutic Agents for Decontamination of InfectedDental Implant Surface: A Systematic Review”. Antibiotics 11 (2022):
  10. Verdeguer P., et al. “Citric Acid in the Passivation of Titanium Dental Implants: Corrosion Resistance and Bactericide Behavior”. Materials 15 (2022):
  11. Elena figuero., et al. “Management of peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis”. Periodontology 2000 66 (2014): 255-273.
  12. Leonhardt A., et al. “Microbial findings at failing implants”. Clinical Oral Implants Research (1999).
  13. Newman MG., et al. “Clinical Periodontology”. 9th edition, Pennsylvania, Elsevier (2003): 811-936.
  14. Misch “Contemporary Implant Dentistry”. 3rd edition, St.Louis, Mosby (2008): 1077-1081.
  15. Patil C., et al. “Effectiveness of Different Chemotherapeutic Agents for Decontamination of Infected Dental Implant Surface: A Systematic Review”. Antibiotics 11 (2022):
  16. Yuki Ichioka., et al.In vitro evaluation of chemical decontamination of titanium discs”. Scientific Reports 11 (2021): 22753.
  17. Anil S., et al. “Dental implant surface enhancement and osseointegration”. Implant Dentistry (2011): 88-89.
  18. Turzo “Surface aspects of titanium dental implants”. Biotechnology - Molecular Studies and Novel Applications for Improved Quality of Human Life, InTech (2012).
  19. Mouhyi J., et al. “An XPS and SEM evaluation of six chemical and physical techniques for cleaning of contaminated titanium implants”. Clinical Oral Implants Research 9 (1998): 185-194.
  20. Mouhyi J., et al. “Re-establishment of the atomic composition and the oxide structure of contaminated titanium surfaces by means of carbon dioxide laser and hydrogen peroxide: An in vitro study”. Clinical Implant Dentistry and Related Research 4 (2000): 190-202.
  21. Cordeiro JM., et al. “Optimizing citric acid protocol to control implant-related infections: An in vitro and in situ study”. Journal of Periodontal Research (2021): 1-11.

Citation

Citation: K Chandrasekharan Nair.,et al. “Effect of Citric Acid and Chlorhexidine on the Implant Surface-an Invitro Experiment".Acta Scientific Dental Sciences 7.4 (2023): 146-160.

Copyright

Copyright: © 2023 K Chandrasekharan Nair., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.




Metrics

Acceptance rate30%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days
Impact Factor1.278

Indexed In





News and Events


  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is May 30, 2024.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of "Best Article of the Issue"
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.

Contact US