Ultrasonography - Our Aid in Determining Patterns of Cervical Lymph Node
Metastasis in Site Specific Oral Cancers - A Retrospective Study
Divya Parimi*, Shiva Bharani and Subhalakshmi S
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, College of Dental Science, Davanagere, India
*Corresponding Author: Divya Parimi, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, College of Dental Science, Davanagere, India.
Received: December 08, 2022; Published: January 03, 2023
Background: Oral squamous cell carcinomas account for nearly 90% of all cancers in the oral cavity, and has a characteristic predilection toward lymph node metastasis, occurring in about 40% of the patients. Ultrasound is a non-invasive modality used to image the cervical lymph nodes.
Objectives: To establish a connection between the site, side and size of the primary tumor and its predisposition for unilateral/bilateral cervical lymphatic spread.
Methods: A total of 50 patients who had reported to College of Dental Sciences, Davangere who were diagnosed with oral squamous cell carcinoma were studied retrospectively. Data was collected and analyzed using previous records based on clinical parameters and USG reports.
Results and Conclusion : The data analysis done put forth the following points
Level IB is the most commonly involved lymph node in metastasis, while level V is involved least commonly.
Irrespective of size of the growth, cancers of the tongue and floor of mouth have a higher tendency for bilateral spread in the neck.
The chances of skip metastasis are considerably higher in cancers of the tongue and maxillary alveolus.
Keywords:Metastasis; Cervical; Lymph Node; Ultrasonography; Oral Cancer
- Fukuda M and Sakashita H. “The Mechanisms of Proliferation and Energy Metabolism in Oral Cancer”. Prevention, Detection and Management of Oral Cancer (2019).
- Maitra S., et al. “Second primary cancers in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the skin”. British Journal of Cancer3 (2004): 570-571.
- “Tumor suppressor gene alterations of spontaneously malignant transformed cells from human embryonic muscle in vitro”. Oncology Reports 24.2 (2010).
- Thiery J. “Epithelial-mesenchymal transitions in tumour progression”. Nature Reviews Cancer6 (2002): 442-454.
- Ying M., et al. “Review of ultrasonography of malignant neck nodes: greyscale, Doppler, contrast enhancement and elastography”. Cancer Imaging4 (2013): 658-669.
- Ahuja A and Ying M. “Sonographic Evaluation of Cervical Lymph Nodes”. American Journal of Roentgenology5 (2005): 1691-1699.
- Acharya S., et al. “Cervical lymph node metastasis in oral squamous cell carcinoma: A correlative study between histopathological malignancy grading and lymph node metastasis”. Indian Journal of Dental Research 24 (2013): 599-604.
- Dhanuthai K., et al. “Oral cancer: A multicenter study”. Medicina Oral Patología Oral y Cirugia Bucal (2017): 0-0.
- Nithya C., et al. “Journal search results - Cite This for Me”. World Journal of Surgical Oncology1 (2003): 10.
- Sajeeda S., et al. “The role of ultrasonography in the management of tumors of the neck”. Ear Nose Throat J 8 (2008): 586-589.
- Zhang W and Peng X. “Cervical metastases of oral maxillary squamous cell carcinoma: A systematic review and meta-analysis”. Head and NeckS1 (2016): E2335-E2342.
- SAGHEB K., et al. “Sentinel lymph node biopsy in T1/T2 squamous cell carcinomas of the tongue: A prospective study”. Oncology Letters1 (2015): 600-604.
- Rouvière H and Tobias MJ. “Lymphatic system of the head and neck, 1st edition”. Anatomy of the Human Lymphatic System. Ann Arbor, MI: Edwards Brothers (1938): 5-28.
- Woolgar JA and Scott J. “Prediction of cervical lymph node metastasis in squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue/floor of mouth”. Head Neck 17 (1995): 463‑472.
- Hamakawa H., et al. “Histological study on pN upgrading of oral cancer”. Virchows Archiv 437 (2000): 116-121.
- Martínez-Gimeno C., et al. “Prospective validation of the Martínez-Gimeno Clinicopathologic Scoring System (MGSS) for evaluating risk of cervical lymph node metastases of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity”. Head and Neck4 (2005): 320-325.