The Implications of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus on Oral Health
Lynceia Angel, Adriana Bruzon Sanchez, Crystal Dey* and Dina
School of Dentistry, University of Guyana, Guyana
*Corresponding Author: Crystal Dey, School of Dentistry, University of Guyana, Guyana.
Received: November 22, 2022; Published: December 15, 2022
Background Information: This systematic review focuses on analyzing scientific data to identify the Implications of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) on Oral Health. Oral symptoms that are diagnostic and prognostic of HIV infection are associated. According to anecdotal evidence, the prevalence of oral lesions has decreased after Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy was introduced (HAART). There were just a few prevalence studies carried out throughout the HAART era.
Significance of Research: Globally, HIV/AIDS has turned into a human and social disaster, affecting developing countries in Africa, Southeast Asia, and Latin America in particular. Due to the worldwide increase in the number of people living with HIV, there is a greater chance for a dental professional, particularly a dentist, to treat a seropositive patient. The advent of HAART has significantly impacted the treatment outcomes seen among HIV seropositive individuals and has revolutionized the treatment of HIV amongst the said population.
Objectives: To review published literature with the purpose of understanding the prevalence and variations of the Oral Health Implications of seropositive adults globally, who are on HAART compared to those who are not on HAART.
Methods: Electronic literature searches were conducted from April 2022 to July 2022, to discover relevant papers that were published. Three investigation systems were utilized in this research: PubMed Central (PMC), Scielo and EbscoHost. A wide number of investigations were found to be “generally relevant” to the research topic. Investigations filtered through the system's electronic database were set from the year 1997 to date.
Each study was graded using a quality assessment instrument given by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) recommendations were followed to evaluate each analysis using standardized methods.
Results: Twenty articles were included in this systematic review which included cross-sectional, retrospective cohort, randomized control, case-control, and comparative studies with a focus on the study’s topic. The prevalence and variation of the oral manifestation of HIV was greater in adults aged 18 years and older who were not on HAART as compared to adults aged 18 years and older who were on HAART.
Conclusion: According to this systematic review, Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) may have a positive effect on oral manifestations of HIV in seropositive patients, however, more research is needed to investigate and provide more data on the effect of HAART on oral aspects of HIV.
Keywords: Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy; HAART; Oral Manifestations; Oral Lesions; Human Immunodeficiency Virus; HIV
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