Acta Scientific Dental Sciences (ISSN: 2581-4893)

Review Article Volume 6 Issue 9

Human Salivary (Biomarkers) Proteome and Transcriptome: A Boon in Modern Cancer Diagnosis- A Systematic Review

Nitya Jha1*, Harsita Chhajer1, Sree Chandana Shreya Sivalanka1 and Jhanvi Solanki2

1Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, NSVK Sri Venkateshwara Dental College and Hospital, Bengaluru, Affiliated to Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka, India
2Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Karnavati University, India

*Corresponding Author: Nitya Jha, Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, NSVK Sri Venkateshwara Dental College and Hospital, Bengaluru, Affiliated to Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka, India.

Received: August 11, 2022; Published: August 26, 2022


Background: Over the last few decades our understanding of the molecular basis of tumour pathology has greatly improved and as science and technology is growing beyond mankind’s yet explored fathoms, it is but imperative for us to utilize these new approaches to try and change the age-old methods of cancer diagnosis. Through these studies we have gained an insight into the world of molecular biomarkers and specific target therapies which are currently been developed. Moreover the use of saliva as a bio-fluid for these studies has been significant to highlight the non-invasive approach to detect these biomarkers. The advancement of these omic studies have also called in for more specific and sensitive research techniques. The purpose of this review is to highlight the importance of salivary biomarkers the proteomes and transcriptomes in early cancer diagnosis and to pave the way for better conceptualising the ideologies of the proteomics and the transcriptomics world.

Aim of the Study: To determine the significance of Salivary Proteomes and Transcriptomes in the field of cancer diagnosis.

Research Question: Are salivary proteomes and transcriptomes significant in supporting early cancer diagnosis?

Materials and Methods: The study sample included review and research articles based on databases from the COCHRANE collaboration as well as few other scientific libraries like Medline and Med-know, having undergone a definite Randomized Control Trial (RCT), to signify the title of the study. Various inclusion and exclusion criterion for Systematic Review decided the final RCT based research articles for the study. (For the given study there were 65 articles which were selected out of which 45 were chosen post having undergone Randomised Control Trial).


Keywords: Oral Cancer; Proteomics; Transcriptomics; Saliva


  1. Institute Of Medicine (US) Forum on Drug Discovery, Development, And Translation. “Accelerating The Development of Biomarkers for Drug Safety”. Workshop Summary. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US) (2009): 1.
  2. David T Wu., et al. “Saliva - A Promising Tool for Diagnosing Oral Diseases”. Current Oral Health Reports 1 (2018).
  3. Helmerhorst EJ., et al. “Saliva: A Dynamic Proteome”. Journal of Dental Research 86 (2007): 680-693.
  4. Walsh CT., et al. “Protein Posttranslational Modifications: The Chemistry of Proteome Diversifications”. Angewandte Chemie International Edition 44 (2005): 7342-7372.
  5. Benjamin L Schulz., et al. “Saliva Proteome Research: Current Status and Future Outlook”. Critical Reviews in Biotechnology3 (2013): 246-259.
  6. Panta P., et al. “Salivary Biomarkers in Oral Cancer”. In: Panta P. (eds) Oral Cancer Detection. Springer, Cham (2019).
  7. Gold P and Freedman SO. “Demonstration of Tumor-Specific Antigens In Human Colonic Carcinomata By Immunological Tolerance And Absorption Techniques”Journal of Experimental Medicine 121 (1965): 439.
  8. Pfaffe T., et al. “Diagnostic Potential of Saliva: Current State and Future Applications”. Clinical Chemistry 57 (2011): 675-687.
  9. Schulz BL., et al. “Saliva proteome research: current status and future outlook”. Critical Reviews in Biotechnology 33 (2012): 246 -259.
  10. A Van Nieuw Amerongen., et al. “Salivary proteins: protective and diagnostic value in cariology?” Caries Research 3 (2004): 247-253.
  11. David T Wu., et al. “A Promising Tool for Diagnosing Oral Diseases”. Current Oral Health Reports 1 (2018).
  12. Yan W., et al. “Systematic Comparison of The Human Saliva and Plasma Proteomes”. Proteomics - Clinical Applications 3 (2009): 116-134.
  13. Christodoulides N., et al. “Lab-on-A-Chip Methods for Point-of-Care Measurements of Salivary Biomarkers of Periodontitis”. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1098 (2007): 411-428.
  14. Lee YH., et al. “Saliva: An Emerging Biofluid for Early Detection of Diseases”. American Journal of Dentistry 4 (2009): 241-248.
  15. Kathariya R., et al. “Salivary Proteomic Biomarkers for Oral Diseases: A Review of Literature”. AOSR1 (2010): 43-49.
  16. Gröschl M., et al. “Current Status of Salivary Hormone Analysis”. Clinical Chemistry 54 (2008): 1759-1769.
  17. Liu C., et al. “A Timer-Actuated Immunoassay Cassette for Detecting Molecular Markers in Oral Fluids”. Lab on a Chip 6 (2009): 768-776.
  18. Pfaffe T., et al. “Diagnostic Potential of Saliva: Current State and Future Applications”. Clinical Chemistry 57 (2001): 675-687.
  19. Charles F Streckfus., et al. “Proteomic analysis of saliva for cancer diagnosis”. Expert Review of Proteomics 4.3 (2007): 329-332.
  20. Jarai T., et al. “Mass Spectrometry-Based Salivary Proteomics for The Discovery of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma”. Pathology Oncology Research 18.3 (2012): 623-628.
  21. Streckfus C., et al. “The Presence of Soluble C-Erbb-2 In Saliva and Serum Among Women with Breast Carcinoma: A Preliminary Study”. Clinical Cancer Research 6 (2000): 2363-2370.
  22. Streckfus CF., et al. “Breast Cancer Related Proteins Are Present in Saliva and Are Modulated Secondary To Ductal Carcinoma In Situ Of The Breast”. Cancer Investment 26 (2008): 159-167.
  23. Yogesh Goswami., et al. “Biomarkers-A Review of Powerful Diagnostic Tool”. IOSR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences3 (2015): 80-87.
  24. Fabryovah Celec P., et al. “On The Origin and Diagnostic Use of Salivary RNA”. Oral Diseases 2 (2014): 146-152.
  25. Gualtero DF., et al. “Biomarkers in Saliva for the Detection of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Their Potential Use for Early Diagnosis: A Systematic Review”. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica 3 (2016): 170-177.
  26. Panta P., et al. “Salivary RNA Signatures in Oral Cancer Detection”. Analytical Cellular Pathology (2014): 7-1
  27. Principe S., et al. “Tumorderived Exosomes and Microvesicles in Head And Neck Cancer: ImplicationsFor Tumor Biology and Biomarker Discovery”. Proteomics10-11 (2013): 1608-1623.
  28. Wikipedia Contributors. Transcriptome. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia.
  29. Amelia Casamassimi., et al. “Transcriptome Profiling in Human Diseases: New Advances and Perspectives”. International Journal of Molecular Sciences8 (2017): 1652.
  30. Yang Li., et al. “Salivary Transcriptome Diagnostics for Oral Cancer Detection”. Clinical Cancer Research24 (2004): 8442-8450.
  31. Zhou AQ., et al. “Exploration of the central dogma at the interface of chemistry and biology: 2010 Yale Chemical Biology Symposium”. Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine 3 (2010): 131-133.
  32. Sannam Khan R., et al. “Advances of Salivary Proteomics in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) Detection: An Update”. Proteomes 4.4 (2016): 41.
  33. Park NJ., et al. “Characterization of RNA in saliva”. Clinical Chemistry 52.6 (2006): 988-994.
  34. Bechhofer DH., et al. “Bacterial ribonucleases and their roles in RNA metabolism”. Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 54.3 (2019): 242-300.
  35. Jarrous N., et al. “Human RNase P: a tRNA-processing enzyme and transcription factor”. Nucleic Acids Research 35.11 (2007): 3519-3524.
  36. Barros SP., et al. “Gingival crevicular fluid as a source of biomarkers for periodontitis”. Periodontology 2000 70.1 (2016): 53-64.
  37. Lei B., et al. “Transcriptome sequencing of HER2-positive breast cancer stem cells identifies potential prognostic marker”. Tumor Biology 37.11 (2016): 14757-14764.
  38. Hackstadt Amber and Hess Ann. “Filtering for Increased Power for Microarray Data Analysis”. BMC Bioinformatics (2009). 10-11.
  39. Aggarwal BB., et al. “Inflammation and cancer: how friendly is the relationship for cancer patients?” Current Opinion in Pharmacology 9.4 (2009): 351-369.
  40. Rabadán R., et al. “Identification of relevant genetic alterations in cancer using topological data analysis”. Nature Communications 11 (2020): 3808.
  41. Gornati R., et al. “Evaluation of SAT-1, SAT-2 and GalNAcT-1 mRNA in colon cancer by real-time PCR”. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 298.1-2 (2007): 59-68.
  42. Yin Shenglu., et al. “Expression of interleukin 1β in gastric cancer tissue and its effects on gastric cancer”. OncoTargets and Therapy 9 (2015): 31-35.
  43. Belbin TJ., et al. “Molecular Profiling of Tumor Progression in Head and Neck Cancer”. Archives of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery 131.1 (2005): 10-18.
  44. Berglund Emelie., et al. “Spatial maps of prostate cancer transcriptomes reveal an unexplored landscape of heterogeneity”. Nature Communications 9.
  45. Levitin Hanna Mendes., et al. “Single-Cell Transcriptomic Analysis of Tumor Heterogeneity”. Trends in Cancer 4.4 264-268.
  46. Kori M., et al. “Potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets in cervical cancer: Insights from the meta-analysis of transcriptomics data within network biomedicine perspective”. PLoS ONE7 (2018): e0200717.


Citation: Nitya Jha., et al. “Human Salivary (Biomarkers) Proteome and Transcriptome: A Boon in Modern Cancer Diagnosis- A Systematic Review". Acta Scientific Dental Sciences 6.9 (2022): 66-75.


Copyright: © 2022 Nitya Jha., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Acceptance rate30%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days
Impact Factor1.278

Indexed In

News and Events

  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is July 30, 2024.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of "Best Article of the Issue"
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.

Contact US