Dealing with the Internal and External Surfaces of Zirconia Restorations; between Past and Present Trends. A Review of Literature
Alaa Samir Fathy El-Ashkar* and Omnia Nabil
Fixed Prosthodontics Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Cairo University, Egypt
*Corresponding Author: Alaa Samir Fathy El-Ashkar, Fixed Prosthodontics Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Cairo University, Egypt.
Received: May 23, 2022; Published: June 20, 2022
Objectives: The optimum zirconia bonding protocol have been always a mystery to be solved throughout the past years. The purpose of this review is to go through the innumerable surface treatment methods and protocols concerned with the both internal and external zirconia surface treatment.
Study selection, Data and Sources: An electronic Pubmed, Medline and Google scholar search was done to attain In-vitro studies on zirconia surface treatments published in english, with time frame between 2013 and 2020.
Results: Hundred thirty-two in vitro studies and systematic reviews were surveyed in this appraisal. Numerous techniques were used for zirconia surface modifications, these methodologies were categorized and grouped in this review according to the surface modified. Laboratory test studies discuss internal surface treatments including micro-mechanical bonding, chemical bonding and external surface treatment including different core surface treatment, glazing and polishing.
Conclusions: With respect to the heterogeneity of the included studies; the internal surface treatment, most of the included studies verified the air particle abrasion as the generally approved micro-mechanical topographic modification protocol. Other internal surface treatment protocols as chemical etching showed promising results in laboratory studies with inadequacy of clinical application. The external surface studies verified different methods over others. However, self-glazed zirconia studies are scarce.
Keywords: Zirconia; Internal Surface Treatment; Polishing; Glazing; Bonding; Primers; Chemical Etching
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