Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Following Craniomaxillofacial Trauma - A Five Year Retrospective Study.
Classified Specialist, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Commanding Officer 33 Corps Dental Unit; Corps Dental Adviser 33 Corps, Indian Army, India
*Corresponding Author: Priya Jeyaraj, Classified Specialist, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Commanding Officer 33 Corps Dental Unit; Corps Dental Adviser 33 Corps, Indian Army, India.
Received: May 17, 2022; Published: June 10, 2022
Introduction: The psychological and psychiatric derangements as well as psychosocial impact that craniomaxillofacial trauma can have upon patients, often goes undetected, ignored and unaddressed. This can adversely affect the mental and physical well-being of the patient, leading to a lifetime of severe debility and incapacitation.
Methods: This retrospective study examined the incidence, severity, predictors and likely predisposing factors for development of PTSD among 378 patients treated for craniomaxillofacial trauma at a tertiary care centre, over a five-year period. It correlated the likelihood of development of PTSD with the mode of injury sustained and analysed the management protocols employed and outcomes achieved.
Results: 31% of the patients demonstrated a positive diagnosis for PTSD and were managed for the same. Self-inflicted maxillofacial trauma patients exhibited the highest risk for developing PTSD, followed by victims of natural disasters, combat associated trauma victims (blast and ballistic injuries), followed thereafter by physical assault and RTA victims. Depending upon the severity of PTSD exhibited by the different patients, counselling, psychotherapy, and/or pharmacotherapy were employed.
Discussion: Careful screening of craniomaxillofacial trauma victims for features of PTSD cannot be overemphasized. Timely and effective management of the same can go a long way towards successful rehabilitation of these vulnerable group of patients. Surgical management of orofacial injuries should integrate case management that addresses psychosocial sequelae as it is not only necessary to restore the integrity of the anatomy and function, but also to provide psychiatric support and therapy for patients experiencing symptoms of PTSD caused by traumatic events.
Keywords: Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD); Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-V; Hypervigilance; Trauma; Psychotherapy; Pharmacotherapy
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