Acta Scientific Dental Sciences (ASDS)(ISSN: 2581-4893)

Review Article Volume 6 Issue 6

History and Development of Polymeric Denture Base Reinforcement

Ibrahim M Hamouda* and Alaa Makki

1Professor of Dental Biomaterials, Faculty of Dentistry, Umm-Al-Qura University, Saudi Arabia
2Professor of Dental Implantology, Faculty of Dentistry, Umm Al-Qura University, Saudi Arabia

*Corresponding Author: Ibrahim M Hamouda, Professor of Dental Biomaterials, Faculty of Dentistry, Umm-Al-Qura University, Saudi Arabia.

Received: April 19, 2022; Published: May 23, 2022


Continuous developments in the biomaterials science over the last decades contributed to the marked production of new materials and techniques in dentistry. There are four major groups in dental biomaterials such as ceramics, metals, composites and polymers. Polymeric based materials are widely used for dentures construction. Poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) was the most widely used non-metallic denture base material. PMMA has good esthetic property but it is still not fulfil the requirements of the ideal mechanical properties as a denture base material to resist the impact force. The researches were focused on the production of alternative denture base materials or to modify the present materials chemically and mechanically. So, this review article was aimed to go through the literatures reviewing the history and collecting the different reinforcing materials for polymeric denture base materials. This review article was built on the information from literatures available in PubMed, Google scholar, Research Gate and Scopus.

Keywords: Polymeric Denture; Poly Methyl Methacrylate; Polyamides


  1. Alla RK., et al. “Influence of Fiber Reinforcement on the Properties of Denture Base Resins”. Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology 4.1 (2013): 91-97.
  2. Alla RK., et al. “Conventional and Contemporary polymers for the fabrication of denture prosthesis: part I - Overview, composition and properties”. International Journal of Applied Dental Sciences4 (2015): 82-89.
  3. Meng TR and Latta MA. “Physical Properties of Four Acrylic Denture Base Resins”. The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice4 (2005): 93-100.
  4. Price CA. “A history of dental polymers”. Australian Prosthodontic Journal 8 (1994): 47-54.
  5. Rueggeberg FA. “From vulcanite to vinyl, a history of resins in restorative dentistry”. Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry 4 (2002): 364-379.
  6. Khindria S., et al. “Evolution of denture base materials”. The Journal of Indian Prosthodontic Society2 (2009): 64-69.
  7. Yunus N., et al. “A Comparative Study of Polyamide and PMMA Denture Base Biomaterials: I. Thermal, Mechanical, and Dynamic Mechanical Properties”. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation 32 (2005): 65-69.
  8. John J., et al. “Flexural strength of heat-polymerized polymethyl methacrylate denture resin reinforced with glass, aramid, or nylon fibers”. Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry4 (2001): 424-427.
  9. Kohli S and Bhatia S. “Polyamides in dentistry”. International Journal of Scientific Study1 (2013): 20-25.
  10. Sheng TJ., et al. “Review on poly-methyl methacrylate as denture base materials”. Malaysian Journal of Microscopy1 (2018): 1-16.
  11. Prajwala N., et al. “Denture base reinforcing materials - A review”. IP Annals of Prosthodontics and Restorative Dentistry2 (2020): 52-59.
  12. Hamouda IM and Gomaa Faramay AM. “One Year Water Storage Flexural Properties of Vertex Thermosens vs Conventional Denture Base Materials”. Austin Journal of Dentistry 1 (2018): 1-4.
  13. Hamouda IM and Lamfon H. “Maxillary denture flange and occlusal discrepancies of Vertex ThermoSens in comparison with conventional heat-cured denture base materials”. JBR2 (2019): 139-144.
  14. Rout A., et al. “An in vitro study to compare the transverse strength of thermopressed and conventional compression-molded polymethylmethacrylate polymers”. Indian Journal of Dental Research3 (2013): 356-362.
  15. Zafar MS. “Prosthodontic Applications of Polymethyl Methacrylate (PMMA): An Update”. Polymers 12 (2020): 2299-2334.
  16. Al Helal A., et al. “Comparison of retention between maxillary milled and conventional denture bases: A clinical study”. Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry2 (2017): 233-238.
  17. Goodacre CJ., et al. “CAD/CAM fabricated complete dentures: concepts and clinical methods of obtaining required morphological data”. Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry1 (2012): 34-46.
  18. Al-Dwairi ZN., et al. “A Comparison of the Flexural and Impact Strengths and Flexural Modulus of CAD/CAM and Conventional Heat-Cured Polymethyl Methacrylate (PMMA)”. Journal of Prosthodontics4 (2020): 341-349.
  19. Naji A., et al. “Recent advances and future perspectives for reinforcement of poly (methyl methacrylate) denture base materials: A literature review”. Journal of Dental Biomaterial 1 (2018): 490-502.
  20. Hamouda IM and Beyari MM. “Addition of glass fibers and titanium dioxide nanoparticles to the acrylic resin denture base material: Comparative study with the conventional and high impact types”. Oral Health and Dental Management 1 (2014): 107-112.
  21. Rajul V and Romesh S. “Denture Base Materials: Some Relevant Properties and their Determination”. International Journal of Oral and Dental Health4 (2015): 1-3.
  22. Jagger DC., et al. “The reinforcement of dentures”. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation 26.3 (1999): 185-194.
  23. Vojvodic D., et al. “Comparison of Flexural Strength between Fiber-Reinforced Polymer and High-Impact Strength Resin”. Military Medicine10 (2008): 1023-1030.
  24. Mallikarjuna MHB., et al. “Effect of Reinforcement Using Stainless Steel Mesh, Glass Fibers, and Polyethylene on the Impact Strength of Heat Cure Denture Base Resin - An In Vitro Study”. Journal of International Oral Health 6 (2015): 71-79.
  25. Özdemir AK., et al. “Effects of boron on the mechanical properties of polymethylmethacrylate denture base material”. European Oral Research 1 (2021): 45-53.
  26. Kawano F., et al. “Reinforcing Effect of a Ni-Cr Alloy Plate on an Acrylic Resin Denture Base”. The International Journal of Prosthodontics 4 (1991): 327-331.
  27. Jasim BS and Ismail IJ. “The effect of silanized alumina nano-fillers addition on some physical and mechanical properties of heat cured polymethyl methacrylate denture base material”. Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry2 (2014): 18-23.
  28. Hamouda IM and Makki A. “Effect of aluminum oxide powder reinforcement on degree of conversion, monomer release and flexural strength of heat-cured acrylic resin”. Biomedical Research and Clinical Reviews3 (2020): 1-5.
  29. Gad M., et al. “PMMA denture base material enhancement: a review of fiber, filler, and nanofiller addition”. International Journal of Nanomedicine12 (2017): 3801-3812.
  30. Bian YM., et al. “Influence of different amount of silane coupling agent on the flexural strength of PMMA/nanometer ZrO2 composites”. Shanghai Journal of Stomatology 3 (2005): 319-323.
  31. Elsaka SE., et al. “Titanium dioxide nanoparticles addition to a conventional glass-ionomer restorative: Influence on physical and antibacterial properties”. Journal of Dentistry 9 (2011): 589-598.
  32. Alwan SA and Alameer SS. “The effect of the addition of silanized nano titania fillers on some physical and mechanical properties of heat cured acrylic denture base materials”. Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry 1 (2015): 1-12.
  33. Shibata T., et al. “Antifungal effect of acrylic resin containing apatite-coated TiO2 photocatalyst”. Dental Materials Journal 3 (2007): 437-444.
  34. Ghafari T., et al. “Does addition of silver nanoparticles to denture base resin increase its thermal conductivity?” Journal of Dental School 32 (2014): 144.
  35. Bacali C., et al. “The influence of graphene in improvement of physico-mechanical properties in PMMA denture base resins”. Materials4 (2019): 2335- 2335.
  36. Hasab AA., et al. “Effect of reinforcement of acrylic resin by nanosilver and nanogold on water sorption and solubility”. Al-Azhar Journal of Dental Science2 (2018): 155-159.
  37. Paes-Junior TJA., et al. “A Novel Silica-Nylon Mesh Reinforcement for Dental Prostheses”. Advances in Materials Science and Engineering 6 (2017): 1-6.
  38. Vallittu PK. “A review of Fibre-Reinforced Denture Base Material”. Denture Base Resin 4 (1996): 270-276.
  39. Ladizesky NH., et al. “Reinforcement of complete denture bases with continuous high performance polyethylene fibers”. Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry6 (1992): 934-939.
  40. Fong H. “Electrospun nylon 6 nanofibers reinforced BISGMA/TEGDMA dental restorative composite resins”. Polymer 45 (2004): 2427-2432.
  41. Khan AS., et al. “An update on glass fiber dental restorative composites: A systematic review”. Materials Science and Engineering 47 (2015): 26-39.
  42. Garoushi S., et al. “Depth of cure and surface microhardness of experimental short fiber-reinforced composite”. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica 1 (2008): 38-42.
  43. Goguta L., et al. “Impact Strength of Acrylic Heat Curing Denture Base Resin Re- inforced with E-Glass Fibers”. Temporomandibular Joint Disorders1 (2006): 88-91.
  44. Braden M., et al. “Denture Base Poly (methyl methacrylate) Reinforced with Ultra-High Modulus Polyethylene Fibres”. BDJ 164 (1988): 109-113.
  45. Dixon DL and Breeding LC. “The transverse strengths of three denture
    base resins reinforced with polyethylene fibers”. Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
    3 (1992): 417-419.
  46. Rama KA., et al. “Influence of Fibre Reinforcement on the Properties of Denture Base Resins”. Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology1 (2013): 91-97.
  47. Berrong IM., et al. “Fracture Resistance of Kevlar-Reinforced Poly (methyl methacrylate) Resin: A Preliminary Study”. The International Journal of Prosthodontics 4 (1990): 391-395.
  48. Tandon R., et al. “Denture Base Materials: From Past to Future”. Indian Journal of Dental Sciences 2 (2010): 33-39.
  49. Vidotti HA., et al. “Flexural properties of experimental nanofiber reinforced composite are affected by resin composition and nanofiber/resin ratio”. Dental Materials 9 (2015): 1132-1141.
  50. Xu J., et al. “Reinforcement of denture base resin with short vegetable fiber”. Dental Materials 12 (2013): 1273-1279.
  51. Salman TA and Khalaf HA. “The influence of adding of modified ZrO2- TiO2 nanoparticles on certain physical and mechanical pro perties of heat polymerized acrylic resin”. Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry 3 (2015): 33-39.


Citation: Ibrahim M Hamouda and Alaa Makki. “History and Development of Polymeric Denture Base Reinforcement". Acta Scientific Dental Sciences 6.6 (2022): 111-121.


Copyright: © 2022 Ibrahim M Hamouda and Alaa Makki. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Acceptance rate30%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days
Impact Factor1.278

Indexed In

News and Events

  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is July 10, 2022.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of “Best Article of the Issue”.
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.
  • Contact US