Recent Developments and Potential Challenges in Dealing with Internal and External Surfaces of Glass Matrix and Resin Matrix Ceramic Materials. A Literature Review
Alaa Samir El-Ashkar* and Omnia Nabil
Department of Fixed Prosthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Cairo University, Egypt
*Corresponding Author: Alaa Samir El-Ashkar, Department of Fixed Prosthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Cairo University, Egypt.
Received: January 13, 2022; Published: February 24, 2022
Objectives. Glass matrix and resin matrix ceramic materials has gained popularity in recent years, which has increased their clinical use. The purpose of this scientific overview is to discuss the impact of existing internal and external surface treatment procedures, as well as their potential consequences.
Study selection, data and sources. The recent literature of in vitro research investigating adhesion methods and external surface techniques on both glass matrix and resin matrix ceramics, including studies from 2014 until 2020, was considered. A search of English language studies was carried out using Pubmed, MEDLINE, and Google scholar.
Results. A total of ninety-seven publications were recognized for evaluation. Several surface treatment techniques with different testing approaches were reviewed and categorized in this review according to the surface modification method: internal surface treatments including mechanical bonding, chemical etching, and external surface treatments including glazing and polishing.
Conclusions. With respect to the diversity of the included studies, their results were difficult to compare in that the factors varied in each research protocol. This was considered a limitation for this review to recommend a final surface treatment protocol for each material. However, most of the studies reported hydrofluoric acid (HF) as the most effective in glass matrix ceramics internal surface treatment. Increasing the concentration and etching duration maximizes the etching effect. For resin matrix ceramics, air particle abrasion and hydrofluoric acid etching have been widely accepted as micro-mechanical internal surface treatment protocols. The merits of various glazing and polishing surface treatment systems for the two ceramic materials were also debated in other studies. Depending on the ceramic microstructure, exterior surface investigations favoured one approach over the other. A final recommended protocol, however, has not yet been authorized.
Keywords: Glass Matrix Ceramics; Resin Matrix Ceramics Internal Surface Treatment; Polishing; Glazing; Bonding; Silanization; Neutralizing Agents; Cleansing Agents; And Laser Surface Treatment
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