Candida Species Around Dental Implants in Saudi Arabian Diabetic Patients
Rehab M Alhossaini1, Mansour K Assery2, Sami Shafik3 and Khalid Al-Hezaimi4*
1Postgraduate Student in Periodontics, School of Dentistry, Riyadh Elm University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
2Associate Professor of Prosthodontics, School of Dentistry, Riyadh Elm University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
3Professor of Periodontics, School of Dentistry, Riyadh Elm University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
4Professor of Endodontics and Periodontics Department, School of Dentistry, Riyadh Elm University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
*Corresponding Author: Khalid Al-Hezaimi, Professor of Endodontics and Periodontics Department, School of Dentistry, Riyadh Elm University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
August 13, 2020; Published: September 16, 2020
Introduction: Reports confirm high prevalence of diabetes mellitus and dental caries associated with early tooth loss often replaced by dental implants in the Saudi Arabian society. This study aims to (1) assess clinical periodontal parameters of probing depth (PD), bleeding on probing (BOP) and amount of keratinized tissues (KT) around dental implants and (2) identify and type the fungal colonization present in the peri-implant crevicular fluid (PICF) in diabetic and non-diabetic Saudi nationals.
Materials and Methods: Thirteen individuals were divided into two groups: diabetics (Group I, n = 6) and non-diabetics (Group II, n = 7). PICF Serum samples were collected using paper points. Fifty-two agar plates were prepared: Group I with 24 and Group II with 28. Plates of agar without collected serum served as positive control and plates without C. albicans served as negative control. Microbiological analysis for Candida species included: 1) clinical strains of Candida albicans, Candida albicans ATCC 10231, Candida parapsilosis ATCC 22019, Candida glabrata ATCC 2001 and Candida tropicalis ATCC 750. All plates were incubated at 37°C for 1, 24, 48, 72 and 96-hours’ periods. At each time period, the presence of fungal colonies was assessed and recorded. Clinical periodontal parameters of PD, BOP, and amount of KT around dental implants were recorded.
Results: Mean PD in Group I (4.83 ± 0.75 mm) was significantly higher than Group II (P ≤ 0.001). BOP in Group I (83.30%) was significantly higher than Group II (P < 0.029). No significant difference was found in the amount of KT between the two study groups (P > 0.960). Fungal growth colonies in both groups were similar (P > 0.05).
Conclusion: Significantly higher BOP, PD in Saudi diabetic subjects compared to Saudi non-diabetic subjects. Candida species are present in PICF of Saudi Arabian subjects with slightly more frequent observation seen in diabetic subjects.
Keywords: Candida albicans; Dental Implants; Diabetic Saudi Arabian; Peri-Implant Crevicular Fluid; Fungi Around Dental Implants
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