Acta Scientific Dental Sciences (ISSN: 2581-4893)

Review Article Volume 4 Issue 8

Role of HPV in Oral Cancer

Smitha T*

Professor, Department of Oral Pathology, Rajiv Gandhi University Health Sciences, India

*Corresponding Author: Smitha T, Professor, Department of Oral Pathology, Rajiv Gandhi University Health Sciences, India.

Received: June 08, 2020; Published: July 30, 2020



 Oral cancer is one of the major health issues in India. The traditional risk factors or oral cancer include pan chewing, tobacco and alcohol use. However, Human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 is now being implicated causing oral cancer. Until recent times, the research on oral cancer has focused on factors like genetics, evolving lifestyle and environmental factors such as pollution. The possible etiological role of HPV16 and 18 in oral oncogenesis needs to be addressed. Additionally, there are many aspects of HPV in causation of oral cancer that still needs to be understood and addressed. The following chapter focuses on types and role of HPV, its pathogenesis within the oral cavity, and prognosis in case of HPV-positive cancer cases. The chapter also includes an update on the diagnostic tests, with highlight on various specific biomarkers, and the treatments developed to contain the HPV-positive cancer cases. Current research areas and future perspectives have been covered in this chapter which can be taken up to advance the research on HPV-positive oral cancer.

Keywords: Human Papillomavirus (HPV); Oral Cancer; Oncogenic Viruses; Tobacco



  1. Metgud R., et al. “Role of viruses in oral squamous cell carcinoma”. Oncology Reviews2 (2012): e21.
  2. Lafaurie GI., et al. “Human papilloma virus: An etiological and prognostic factor for oral cancer?”. Journal of Investigative and Clinical Dentistry 2 (2018): e12313.
  3. Zheng ZM and Baker CC. “Papillomavirus genome structure, expression, and post-transcriptional regulation”. Frontiers in Bioscience 11 (2006): 2286-2302.
  4. Rautava J and Syrjänen S. Human papillomavirus infections in the oral mucosa”. Journal of the American Dental Association8 (2011): 905-914.
  5. Kingma DW., et al. “HPV genotype distribution in oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma using seven in vitro amplification assays”. Anticancer Research12 (2010): 5099-5104.
  6. Michaud DS., et al. “High‐risk HPV types and head and neck cancer”. International Journal of Cancer7 (2014): 1653-1661.
  7. Lee LA., et al. “Human papillomavirus-16 infection in advanced oral cavity cancer patients is related to an increased risk of distant metastases and poor survival”. PloS one7 (2012): e40767.
  8. Candotto V., et al. “HPV infection in the oral cavity: epidemiology, clinical manifestations and relationship with oral cancer”. Oral and Implantology12 (2017): 209-220.
  9. Araújo MV., et al. “Prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in Belem, Para State, Brazil, in the oral cavity of individuals without clinically diagnosable injuries”. Cadernos de saude publica5 (2014): 1115-1119.
  10. Lupato V., et al. “Prevalence and Determinants of oral human papillomavirus infection in 500 young adults from Italy”. PloS one1 (2017): e0170091.
  11. Kouvousi M., et al. “Prevalence of human papillomavirus in 45 Greek patients with oral cancer”. Journal of oncology (2013).
  12. Boulet G., et al. “Human papillomavirus: E6 and E7 oncogenes”. The International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology11 (2007): 2006-2011.
  13. Attner P., et al. “Human papillomavirus and survival in patients with base of tongue cancer”. International Journal of Cancer12 (2011): 2892-2897.
  14. Saghravanian N., et al. “Evaluation of the prevalence rate and the prognostic effect of human papilloma virus infection in a group of patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma”. Iranian Journal of Cancer Prevention3 (2016): e3998.
  15. Hübbers CU and Akgül B. “HPV and cancer of the oral cavity”. Virulence3 (2015): 244-248.
  16. Akhter M., et al. “A study on histological grading of oral squamous cell carcinoma and its co-relationship with regional metastasis”. Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology2 (2011): 168.
  17. National Cancer Institute. Cancer staging (2018).
  18. National Cancer Institute. Tumor grade (2018).
  19. Rettig EM., et al. “Prognostic implication of persistent human papillomavirus type 16 DNA detection in oral rinses for human papillomavirus–related oropharyngeal carcinoma”. JAMA Oncology7 (2015): 907-915.
  20. Kim SM., et al. “Identification of human papillomavirus (HPV) subtype in oral cancer patients through microarray technology”. European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology2 (2018): 535-543.
  21. Patil S., et al. “Analysis of human papilloma virus in oral squamous cell carcinoma using p16: An immunohistochemical study”. Journal of International Society of Preventive and Community Dentistry 4 (2014): 61-66.
  22. Pannone G., et al. “Evaluation of a combined triple method to detect causative HPV in oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas: p16 Immunohistochemistry, Consensus PCR HPV-DNA, and In Situ Hybridization”. Infectious agents and cancer 7 (2012): 4.
  23. Van Rensburg EJ., et al. “Detection of human papillomavirus DNA with in situ hybridisation in oral squamous carcinoma in a rural black population”. South African Medical Journal (1995): 85.
  24. Chang KW., et al. “High prevalence of human papillomavirus infection and possible association with betel quid chewing and smoking in oral epidermoid carcinomas in Taiwan”. Journal of Medical Virology 28 (1989): 57-61.
  25. Chang F., et al. “Detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in oral squamous cell carcinomas by in situ hybridization and polymerase chain reaction”. Archives of Dermatological Research 282 (1990): 493-497.
  26. Vidal AKdL., et al. “HPV detection in oral carcinomas”. Jornal Brasileiro de Patologia e Medicina Laboratorial 40 (2004): 21-26.
  27. Simonato LE., et al. “HPV detection in floor of mouth squamous cell carcinoma by PCR amplification”. Jornal Brasileiro de Patologia e Medicina Laboratorial 52 (2016): 43-49.
  28. Seaman WT., et al. “Detection and quantitation of HPV in genital and oral tissues and fluids by real time PCR”. Virology Journal 7 (2010): 194.
  29. Pérez Rizo A. “New epidemiologic trends in human papillomavirus-related oropharynx cancer in Girona: a cross-sectional study [Thesis]”. (2016).
  30. Carrasco Y., et al. “Comparison of HPV E6, E7 mRNA/PD-L1 assay using flow cytometry and p16 IHC expression in oral cancer samples”. Journal of Clinical Oncology5 (2018): 114-114.
  31. Tsimplaki E., et al. “Prevalence and expression of human papillomavirus in 53 patients with oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma”. Anticancer research 34 (2014): 1021-1025.
  32. G Ha K., et al. “Seropositivity of HPV 16 E6 and E7 and the risk of oral cancer”. Oral diseases 20 (2014): 762-767.
  33. Shah SS., et al. “Current technologies and recent developments for screening of HPV-associated cervical and oropharyngeal cancers”. Cancers 8 (2016): 85.
  34. Wise-Draper TM and Wells SI. “Papillomavirus E6 and E7 proteins and their cellular targets”. Frontier Bioscience 13 (2008): 1003-1017.
  35. Shi Z., et al. “Fluorescence in situ hybridization for microRNA detection in archived oral cancer tissues”. Journal of Oncology (2012).
  36. Miller CS., et al. “Detection of HPV DNA in oral carcinoma using polymerase chain reaction together with in situ hybridization”. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology 77 (1994): 480-486.
  37. Lai K., et al. “Differences in survival outcome between oropharyngeal and oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma in relation to HPV status”. Journal of Oral Pathology and Medicine 46 (2017): 574-582.
  38. Whang SN., et al. “Recent progress in therapeutic treatments and screening strategies for the prevention and treatment of HPV-associated head and neck cancer”. Viruses 7 (2015): 5040-5065.
  39. Nichols AC., et al. “Early-stage squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx: radiotherapy vs. trans-oral robotic surgery (ORATOR)–study protocol for a randomized phase II trial. BMC cancer 13 (2013): 133.
  40. Haedicke J and Iftner T. “Human papillomaviruses and cancer”. Radiotherapy and oncology 108 (2013): 397-402.
  41. Bol V and Grégoire V. “Biological basis for increased sensitivity to radiation therapy in HPV-positive head and neck cancers”. BioMed Research International (2014).
  42. Elrefaey S., et al. “HPV in oropharyngeal cancer: the basics to know in clinical practice”. Acta Otorhinolaryngologica Italica 34 (2014): 299-309.
  43. Hamakawa H., et al. “Basic evidence of molecular targeted therapy for oral cancer and salivary gland cancer”. Head and Neck 30 (2008): 800-809.
  44. Tumban E., et al. “A pan-HPV vaccine based on bacteriophage PP7 VLPs displaying broadly cross-neutralizing epitopes from the HPV minor capsid protein, L2”. PloS One 6 (2011): e23310.
  45. Harper DM., et al. “HPV vaccines–a review of the first decade”. Gynecologic Oncology 146 (2017): 196-204.
  46. Kim SM. “Human papilloma virus in oral cancer”. Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons 42 (2016): 327-336.
  47. Van Der Burg SH and Melief CJ. Therapeutic vaccination against human papilloma virus induced malignancies”. Current Opinion in Immunology 23 (2011): 252-257.
  48. Chabeda A., et al. “Therapeutic vaccines for high-risk HPV-associated diseases”. Papillomavirus Research (2017).
  49. Morrow MP., et al. “Human papillomavirus therapeutic vaccines: targeting viral antigens as immunotherapy for precancerous disease and cancer”. Expert Review of Vaccines 12 (2013): 271-283.


Citation: Smitha T. “Role of HPV in Oral Cancer". Acta Scientific Dental Sciences 4.8 (2020): 117-127.


Acceptance rate30%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days
Impact Factor1.278

Indexed In

News and Events

Contact US