Acta Scientific Dental Sciences (ISSN: 2581-4893)

Review Article Volume 4 Issue 7

Vitamin D: Another Protection Barrier for the Dentist in Times of SARS-CoV-2

Diego Fernando López1*, Valentina Rios Borrás2 and David Alejandro Rivera2

1Assistant Professor Orthodontics Graduate Program, School of Dentistry, Universidad del Valle, Imbanaco Medical Center researcher, Colombia
2Senior Resident, Orthodontics Graduate Program, School of Dentistry, Universidad del Valle, Colombia

*Corresponding Author: Diego Fernando López, Assistant Professor Orthodontics Graduate Program, School of Dentistry, Universidad del Valle, Imbanaco Medical Center researcher, Colombia.

Received: May 19, 2020; Published: June 24, 2020



The knowledge about vitamin D role in human physiology is highly relevant in Dentistry, particularly considering the current world health emergency (pandemia) of the disease known as COVID-19, caused by the virus SARS-CoV-2. The deficiency of some nutrients including vitamins and hormone precursors is a factor predisposing to disease and susceptibility to infections of the respiratory tract. Additionally, in orthodontics, vitamin D is able to increase dental movement and in Implant Dentistry improves osseointegration. The aim of the present review is to provide information regarding COVID-19 and vitamin D role in the immune system and respiratory system, useful for the dental staff to help patients and themselves to take preventive actions to mitigate the consequences of COVID-19 pandemia in near future.

Keywords: Dentistry; Prevention; Vitamin D; SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19



  1. McCullough PJ., et al. “Daily oral dosing of vitamin D3 using 5000 TO 50,000 international units a day in long-term hospitalized patients: Insights from a seven year experience”. The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 189 (2019): 228-239.
  2. Hewison M. “An update on vitamin D and human immunity”. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology 3 (2012): 315-325.
  3. Hossein-Nezhad A and Holick MF. “Vitamin D for health: A global perspective”. Mayo Clinic Proceedings 7 (2013): 720-755.
  4. T Chen and Z Lu MFH. “Photobiology of Vitamin D”. In: MF Holick (Edition.), Vitamin D”. Molecular Medicine and Clinical Applications 1 (2010): 175-187.
  5. Feldman D. Vitamin D. In: FELDMAN DBT-VD Second E, editor. 2nd Edition [Internet]. Burlington: Academic Press; 2005. p. 1845–92. Available from:
  6. Borella E., et al. “Vitamin D: A new anti-infective agent?” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1 (2014): 76-83.
  7. Lang PO and Aspinall R. “Vitamin D Status and the Host Resistance to Infections: What It Is Currently (Not) Understood”. Clinical Therapeutics5 (2017): 930-945.
  8. Beard JA., et al. “Vitamin D and the anti-viral state”. Journal of Clinical Virology 3 (2011):194-200.
  9. Pludowski P., et al. “Vitamin D effects on musculoskeletal health, immunity, autoimmunity, cardiovascular disease, cancer, fertility, pregnancy, dementia and mortality-A review of recent evidence”. Autoimmunity Reviews 10 (2013): 976-989.
  10. Pludowski P., et al. “Vitamin D supplementation guidelines”. The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 2016 (2018): 125-135.
  11. Doǧruel F., et al. “Investigation of Vitamin D levels in medical staff in a dental clinic”. The Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice 4 (2019): 573-577.
  12. Bikle DD. “Vitamin D metabolism, mechanism of action, and clinical applications”. Chemical Biology 3 (2014): 319-329.
  13. Lang PO., et al. “How important is vitamin D in preventing infections?” Osteoporosis International 5 (2013): 1537-1553.
  14. Carlberg C., et al. “The first genome-wide view of vitamin D receptor locations and their mechanistic implications”. Anticancer Research 1 (2012): 271-282.
  15. Cannell JJ., et al. “Epidemic influenza and vitamin D”. Epidemiology and Infection 6 (2006): 1129-1140.
  16. Liu W, Zhang L, Xu H-J, Li Y, Hu C-M, Yang J-Y, et al. The Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Vitamin D in Tumorigenesis. Int J Mol Sci [Internet]. 2018 Sep 13;19(9):2736. Available from:
  17. Hansdottir S and Monick MM. “Vitamin D Effects on Lung Immunity and Respiratory Diseases 1st edition”. Vitamins and Hormones 86 (2011): 217-237.
  18. Greiller CL and Martineau AR. “Modulation of the immune response to respiratory viruses by vitamin D”. Nutrients6 (2015): 4240-4270.
  19. W Zcyfesf. “SARS-CoV-2 and Covid-19: Key-Roles of the ‘Renin-Angiotensin’ System Vitamin D Impacting Drug and Vaccine Developments (2020): 19-20.
  20. McCartney DM and Byrne DG. “Optimisation of Vitamin D Status for Enhanced Immuno-protection Against Covid-19”. Irish Medical Journal 4 (2020): 58.
  21. Martineau AR., et al. “Vitamin D supplementation to prevent acute respiratory tract infections: Systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data”. British Medical Journal (2017): 356.
  22. Bals R., et al. “The peptide antibiotic LL-37/hCAP-18 is expressed in epithelia of the human lung where it has broad antimicrobial activity at the airway surface”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 16 (1998): 9541-9546.
  23. Zhou Y., et al. “The association between vitamin D deficiency and community-acquired pneumonia A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies (2019): 1-7.
  24. Slow S., et al. “Effect of adjunctive single high-dose vitamin D3 on outcome of community-acquired pneumonia in hospitalised adults: The VIDCAPS randomised controlled trial”. Scientific Reports 1 (2018): 1-9.
  25. Zdrenghea MT., et al. “Vitamin D modulation of innate immune responses to respiratory viral infections”. Reviews in Medical Virology 1 (2017): 1-12.
  26. Watkins RR., et al. “An update on the association of vitamin D deficiency with common infectious diseases1”. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 5 (2015): 363-368.
  27. Ginde AA., et al. “Demographic differences and trends of vitamin D insufficiency in the US population, 1988-2004”. Archives of Internal Medicine 6 (2009): 626-632.
  28. Heidari B and Haji Mirghassemi MB. “Seasonal variations in serum vitamin D according to age and sex”. Caspian Journal of Internal Medicine 4 (2012): 535-540.
  29. Nesby-O’Dell S., et al. “Hypovitaminosis D prevalence and determinants among African American and white women of reproductive age: third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994”. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1 (2002): 187-192.
  30. Gaugris S., et al. “Vitamin D inadequacy among post-menopausal women: a systematic review”. QJM: An International Journal of Medicine 9 (2005): 667-676.
  31. Fraser L-A and Adachi JD. “Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis: treatment update and review”. Therapeutic Advances in Musculoskeletal Disease 2 (2009): 71-85.
  32. Holick MF., et al. “Age, vitamin D, and solar ultraviolet”. Lancet 2 (1989): 1104-1105.
  33. Lo CW., et al. “Vitamin D absorption in healthy subjects and in patients with intestinal malabsorption syndromes”. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 4 (1985): 644-649.
  34. Sullivan SS., et al. “Adolescent girls in Maine are at risk for vitamin D insufficiency”. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 6 (2005): 971-974.
  35. Gordon CM., et al. “Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among healthy adolescents”. The Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 6 (2004): 531-537.
  36. Walsh JS., et al. “Vitamin D in obesity”. Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity 6 (2017): 389-394.
  37. Rosen Y., et al. “Vitamin D and autoimmunity”. Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology 6 (2016): 439-447.
  38. Haney EM., et al. “Vitamin D insufficiency in internal medicine residents”. Calcified Tissue International 1 (2005): 11-16.
  39. Erden G., et al. “Vitamin D Levels of Anesthesia Personnel, Office Workers and Outdoor Workers in Ankara, Turkey”. Clinical Laboratory 5 (2016): 931-937.
  40. Premaor MO., et al. “Hypovitaminosis D and secondary hyperparathyroidism in resident physicians of a general hospital in southern Brazil”. Journal of Endocrinological Investigation 11 (2008): 991-995.
  41. Mahdy S., et al. “Vitamin D status in health care professionals in Qatar”. Saudi Medical Journal 1 (2010): 74-77.
  42. Rajebi H., et al. “Vitamin D deficiency among female nurses of children’s medical center hospital and its related factors”. Acta Medica Iranica 2 (2016): 146-150.
  43. Varkal M, Yildiz I, Saygili S, YILDIZ M, KILIÇ A, DARENDELİLER F, et al. ONE OF THE RISK GROUPS FOR VITAMIN D DEFICIENCY: HEALTH WORKERS. J Ist Faculty Med 10(2015): 41-45.
  44. Zhu N., et al. “A Novel Coronavirus from Patients with Pneumonia in China, 2019”. The New England Journal of Medicine 8 (2020): 727-733.
  45. Yin Y and Wunderink RG. “MERS, SARS and other coronaviruses as causes of pneumonia”. Respirology2 (2018): 130-137.
  46. Song Z., et al. “From SARS to MERS, Thrusting Coronaviruses into the Spotlight”. Viruses 1 (2019).
  47. Ross AC., et al. “Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D”. Washington (DC) (2011).
  48. Chang S-W and Lee H-C. “Vitamin D and health - The missing vitamin in humans”. Pediatrics and Neonatology 3 (2019): 237-244.
  49. Ross AC., et al. “The 2011 report on dietary reference intakes for calcium and vitamin D from the Institute of Medicine: what clinicians need to know”. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 1 (2011): 53-58.
  50. Norman AW. “From vitamin D to hormone D: fundamentals of the vitamin D endocrine system essential for good health”. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2 (2008): 491S-499S.
  51. Spedding S., et al. “Does vitamin D sufficiency equate to a single serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level or are different levels required for non-skeletal diseases?” Nutrients 12 (2013): 5127-5139.
  52. Heaney RP. “Guidelines for optimizing design and analysis of clinical studies of nutrient effects”. Nutrition Reviews 1 (2014): 48-54.
  53. Pludowski P., et al. “Practical guidelines for the supplementation of vitamin D and the treatment of deficits in Central Europe - recommended vitamin D intakes in the general population and groups at risk of vitamin D deficiency”. Endokrynologia Polska 64 (2013): 319-327.
  54. Holick MF., et al. “Evaluation, treatment, and prevention of vitamin D deficiency: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline”. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 7 (2011): 1911-1930.
  55. Heaney RP., et al. “Vitamin D (3) is more potent than vitamin D (2) in humans”. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 3 (2011): E447-E452.
  56. Meng L., et al. “Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): Emerging and Future Challenges for Dental and Oral Medicine”. Journal of Dental Research 5 (2020): 481-487.
  57. Bartzela T., et al. “Medication effects on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement: A systematic literature review”. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics 135 (2009): 16-26.
  58. Tanki JZ., et al. “Influence of drugs on orthodontic tooth movement: A review”. Indian Journal of Clinical Dermatology 1 (2013): 1-4.
  59. Collins M. “The local use of vitamin D to incrrease the rate of orthodontic tooth movement”. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics 93 (1987): 97-104.
  60. Javed F., et al. “Efficacy of Vitamin D3 supplementation on osseointegration of implants”. Implant Dentistry 2 (2016): 281-287.


Citation: Diego Fernando López., et al. “Vitamin D: Another Protection Barrier for the Dentist in Times of SARS-CoV-2”. Acta Scientific Dental Sciences 4.7 (2020): 79-88.

Member In

News and Events

  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is September 30, 2020.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of “Best Article of the Issue”.
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.
  • Contact US