Acta Scientific Dental Sciences (ISSN: 2581-4893)

Research Article Volume 4 Issue 3

Common Radiographic Errors in Dentistry

Umair Dastgir Bhatti*, Areeba Raisat Nehra, Arooj Tariq, Imrah Rafique and Gul muhammad shaikh*

Foundation University College of Dentistry, Islamabad, Pakistan

*Corresponding Author: Umair Dastgir Bhatti, Professor and Head of Community Dentistry, Foundation University College of Dentistry, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Received: January 20, 2020; Published: February 05, 2020



  Intraoral radiographs are the backbone of dentistry and periapical radiographs are most commonly used intra oral radiographs. It was aimed to assess the error seen in periapical radiographs and to evaluate the types of error in association with anatomical structures. A retrospective study design was followed. The data of 3544 repeated periapical x-ray was retrieved from department of oral maxillofacial Radiology University of Lahore from year 2012 - 2016. A total 3544 repeated periapical radiographs were evaluated. According to anatomical region the percentage error in maxillary region was found as 81.9% while in mandibular region it was 19.1%. In accordance to types of error highest percentage error was found as overlapping 16.9%, crown cut 13.4%, absence of required tooth in the center of the film 11.7%, over exposed 10.2%. Other errors that were reported are cone cutting 8.3%, elongation 7.0%, under exposure 6.8%, improper film orientation 6.4%, processing errors 5.6%, absence of periapical region 3.1%, shortening 2.6%, artifacts 2.6%, finger marks 1.9%, light exposure 1.8%, movement blur 1.2% and back exposed 0.5%. This study has classified the types of radiographic errors with respect to their anatomical regions. Acknowledging the percentage of these errors will help dentist to reduce the incidence of repetition of dental radiographs, so that dentist can make better diagnosis and provide high quality treatment planning to the patient.

Keywords: Radiographic; Dentistry



  1. Sikri MK. Fundamental of dental Radiology. 2nd Ed (1999): 64-71.
  2. Whaites S. Essential of dental Radiograph and Radiology. 2nd Ed (1999): 71-95.
  3. L C Gupta., et al. Dental Radiology 2nd Ed (2005): 47-52.
  4. Myron J Kasle. An Atlas of Dental Radiographic Anatomy; 4th Ed (2015): 245-246.
  5. N Ersan., et al. Evaluation of digital periapical radiographs obtained by dental students (2016): 96168.
  6. A Deshpande and D Bhargava. “Intraoral radiographs with grids for implant dentistry”. Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 13.4 (2014): 603-605.
  7. A Gupta., et al. Intraoral periapical radiography- basics yet Intrigue: A review Bangladesh journal of dental research (2014).
  8. Cash M and Perchbacher S. Periapical Radiographic Technique-Long Cone paralleling-Patient. 
  9. Mindy C., et al. Patient at a faculty of dentistry clinics 10 (2008): 28.
  10. Menchini-fabris GB., et al. “A methodological approach to standardize and controlthe quality of the position and alignment of lamina implants on two-dimensional radiographs”. Oral Radiology (2019). 
  11. Cosola S., et al. “Oral health-related quality of life and clinical outcomes of immediately or delayed loaded implants in the rehabilitation of edentulous jaws: a retrospective comparative study”. Minerva Stomatologica 67.5 (2018): 189-195.
  12. K Ssaraswathi Gopal., et al. “A retrospective radiographic analysis”. International Journal of Applied Dental Sciences 4.1 (2018): 72-76.
  13. Fava LR., et al. “Periapical radiographic techniques during endodontic diagnosis and treatment”. International Endodontic Journal 4 (1997): 250-261.
  14. Karjodkar FR. “Textbook of dental and maxillofacial radiology”. 2nd ed. New Delhi: Jaypee publications (2009).
  15. Taking quality dental xrays (2019).
  16. Sally M Mauriello., et al. A Comparison of Technique Errors using Two Radiographic Intra-oral Receptor-Holding Devices: JDH 89.6 (2015): 384-389.
  17. Gail F and Williamson D. “Intraoral Imaging: Basic Principles, Technique and error Correction. 
  18. Miles DA., et al. “Radiographic Imaging for the Dental Team, 4th Ed”. St. Louis, MO. Saunders (2009): 139-152.
  19. Dental radiographic pitfalls and errors by Allan G. Farman. 
  20. Ilkay Peker and Meryem Toraman Alkurt. Evaluation of radiographic errors: Made by under graduate Dental students in periapical radiography NYSDJ (2009).
  21. ADA (American Dental Association), Commission on Dental Accreditation. Accreditation standards for Dental Education facilities Chicago (1988): 16.
  22. Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors, Inc. Diagnostic Radiography, Dental Facilities, CRCPD Publication. Quality Control Recommendations for Diagnostic Radiography 1 (2001). 


Citation: Umair Dastgir Bhatti., et al. “Common Radiographic Errors in Dentistry”.Acta Scientific Dental Sciences 4.3 (2020): 02-05.


Acceptance rate30%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days
Impact Factor1.278

Indexed In

News and Events

  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is July 10, 2024.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of "Best Article of the Issue"
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.

Contact US