Nanda Rachmad Putra Gofur1*, Aisyah Rachmadani Putri Gofur2, Soesilaningtyas3, Rizki Nur Rachman Putra Gofur4, Mega Kahdina4 and Hernalia Martadila Putri4
1Department of Health, Faculty of Vocational Studies, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia
2Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia
3Department of Dental Nursing, Poltekkes Kemenkes, Surabaya, Indonesia
4Faculty Of Medicine, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia
*Corresponding Author: Nanda Rachmad Putra Gofur, Department of Health, Faculty of Vocational Studies, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia.
Received: January 19, 2021; Published: January 28, 2021
Introduction: Aortic stenosis is the most common heart valve disease in adults and is the third cardiovascular disease after arterial hypertension and coronary artery disease. Based on the Euro Heart Survey on valvular heart disease, aortic stenosis is the single most common primary valve disease (43.1%), and possibly degenerative aortic stenosis in elderly individuals. Stenosis of the aortic valve generally occurs in older adults, where 3-5% of people over the age of 65 have this disease. Aortic stenosis has greater morbidity and mortality than other heart valve diseases. Currently, aortic stenosis is the most common valvular heart disease in the country and its prevalence increases with age. Therefore, with the increase in life expectancy, the population of patients with aortic valve stenosis will increase in number in the future.
Discussion : The prevalence of stenosis of the aortic valve increases with age. Based on the Euro Heart Survey on valvular heart disease, the degenerative process was the dominant etiology of aortic stenosis (81.9%), followed by rheumatic disease (11.2%). Endocarditis accounts for 0.8% of cases of aortic stenosis, congenital aortic stenosis with aortic bicuspid valve occurs in 5.4% of patients, whereas 0.6% is due to other causes. Rare causes of aortic stenosis include metabolic syndrome (Fabry disease), nonspecific infectious disease, erythematous lupus, Pagani's disease, hyperuresemia, changes due to drugs, and post radiation therapy. The three main causes of aortic stenosis include calcification of the trileaflet valve, abnormal congenital valves with calcification (unicuspid or bicuspid), and rheumatic valve disease. Regardless of the etiology, aortic stenosis will cause obstruction in left ventricular emptying leading to concentric hypertrophy where there is an increase in the mass and thickness of the left ventricular wall. This aims to normalize the pressure on the wall during systolic and to keep the left ventricular ejection fraction normal.
Conclusion: After defining symptoms of aortic stenosis, the prognosis without surgical intervention is very poor. There are studies that project that the mean time from symptom onset to death is 2 years for patients with syncope complaints on activity, 3 years for those with symptoms of heart failure, and 5 years for those with angina. More severe symptoms will lead to a worse outcome.
Keywords: Aortic Stenosis; Degenerative; Calcification; Surgery
Citation: Nanda Rachmad Putra Gofur.., et al. “Sign and Treatment an Aortic Stenosis: A Review Article". Acta Scientific Clinical Case Reports 2.2 (2021): 22-28.
Copyright: © 2021 Nanda Rachmad Putra Gofur.., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.