Acta Scientific Clinical Case Reports

Editorial Volume 1 Issue 10

Biomarkers in the Prognosis of COVID-19 in the Emergency Department: May the Soluble Urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor (suPAR) Help?

Eduardo Esteban-Zubero1* and Cristina García-Muro2

1Emergency Department, Hospital San Pedro, Logroño, Spain
2Department of Pediatrics, Hospital San Pedro, Logroño, Spain

*Corresponding Author: Eduardo Esteban-Zubero, Emergency Department, Hospital San Pedro, Logroño, Spain.

Received: August 19, 2020; Published: August 31, 2020


Keywords: suPAR; Biomarkers; COVID-19; Pandemic


suPAR: Soluble Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator Receptor; ED: Emergency Department; ALI: Acute Lung Injury; ARDS: Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome; COPD: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

The biomarker suPAR (soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor), discovered in 1992, is the soluble form of the cell membrane-bound protein uPAR, which is expressed primarily in immune cells, endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells. uPAR is released in inflammatory or activation processes of the immune system, therefore, in these situations, suPAR reflects the degree of immune activation in the subject [1].



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  2. Koch A., et al. “Circulating soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor is stably elevated during the first week of treatment in the intensive care unit and predicts mortality in critically ill patients”. Critical Care 15.1 (2011): R63. 
  3. Ostrowski SR., et al. “High plasma levels of intact and cleaved soluble urokinase receptor reflect immune activation and are independent predictors of mortality in HIV-1-infected patients”. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 39.1 (2005): 23-31. 
  4. Sier CF., et al. “Presence of urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor in urine of cancer patients and its possible clinical relevance”. Laboratory Investigation 79.6 (1999): 717-722.
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  6. Ostergaard C., et al. “Soluble urokinase receptor is elevated in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with purulent meningitis and is associated with fatal outcome”. Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Disease 36.1 (2004): 14-19. 
  7. Sier CF., et al. “Metabolism of tumour-derived urokinase receptor and receptor fragments in cancer patients and xenografted mice”. Thrombosis and Haemostasis 91.2 (2004): 403-411. 
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  11. Huang Q., et al. “The Diagnostic and Prognostic Value of Supar in Patients With Sepsis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis”. Shock 53.4 (2020): 416-425. 
  12. Schultz M., et al. “Availability of suPAR in emergency departments may improve risk stratification: a secondary analysis of the TRIAGE III trial”. Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 27.1 (2019): 43. 
  13. Peiris JSM., et al. “Clinical progression and viral load in a community outbreak of coronavirus-associated SARS pneumonia: a prospective study”. Lancet 361 (2003): 1767-1772. 
  14. Channappanavar R., et al. “Pathogenic human coronavirus infections: causes and consequences of cytokine storm and immunopathology”. Seminars in Immunopathology 39.5 (2017): 529-539. 
  15. Guan WJ., et al. “Comorbidity and its impact on 1590 patients with Covid-19 in China: a nationwide analysis”. European Respiratory Journal 55.5 (2020): 2000547. 
  16. D'Alonzo D., et al. “COVID-19 and pneumonia: a role for the uPA/uPAR system”. Drug Discovery Today 25.8 (2020): 1528-1534. 
  17. Chalkias A., et al. “Soluble Urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor: A Biomarker for Predicting Complications and Critical Care Admission of COVID-19 Patients”. Molecular Diagnosis and Therapy, (2020): 1-5. 


Citation: Eduardo Esteban-Zubero and Cristina García-Muro. “Biomarkers in the Prognosis of COVID-19 in the Emergency Department: May the Soluble Urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor (suPAR) Help?”. Acta Scientific Clinical Case Reports 1.10 (2020): 01-03.


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