Acta Scientific Cancer Biology (ASCB) (ISSN: 2582-4473)

Review Article Volume 6 Issue 5

Microbial Aspects of Cancer Progression: A Conventional Approach

Ashish Pareek1* and Dhruv Mishra2

1Department of Biotechnology, Stani Memorial PG College, India

2Department of Biotechnology, Dr. B. Lal Institute of Biotechnology, India

*Corresponding Author: Ashish Pareek, Department of Biotechnology, Stani Memorial PG College, India.

Received: June 27, 2022; Published: July 08, 2022


Cancer is defined as the uncontrolled proliferation of cells due to malignancy being caused due to certain factors such as genetic variations, mutations and Chemical factors that contribute to the increment of cancer as a worldwide disease making it one of the prominent disorders of the human body. However, in developed countries, worldwide cancer accounts for 20% of the deaths due to the lack of proper diagnosis or lack of proper treatment. In developing countries like India cancer is increasing at a fast pace most of the cases are arising and reported as lung cancer, liver cancer, and Cervical Cancer to name a few. There is one more aspect of cancer that is one of the most important parts which is the microbiota or microorganisms causing cancer, they play an important role as viruses, bacteria, and other such organisms holds a great potential to cause and generate optimum conditions for cancer. Bacteria can increase the development of cancer by manipulating animal cell signaling pathways, alteration in metabolites, and causing inflammation, however, these microorganisms can cause cancer under certain geographical and environmental conditions. Some of the prominent causatives in different areas of the body are helicobacter pylori for stomach cancer, Papillomavirus for cervical cell carcinoma, Epstein-Barr virus for Burkitt’s lymphoma, and Streptococcus Ovis for Colorectal cancer. In recent trends it is being observed that the microorganisms are responsible for 15-20% increase in lung cancer, carcinoma, and liver cancer, major causative organisms are responsible also included the factors that these organisms are drug-resistant as well. This review aims toward the microbiological aspect of cancer and the analysis of detailed factors responsible for causing cancer progression.

Keywords: Cancer; Polyomavirus; Radiotherapy; Chemotherapy


  1. Zur Hausen H. “Infections Causing Human Cancer”. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim-New York (2006): 1-517.
  2. Feng Huichen., et al. “Clonal integration of a polyomavirus in human Merkel cell carcinoma”. Science (New York, N.Y.)5866 (2008): 1096-1100.
  3. Wroblewski Lydia E.., et al. “Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer: factors that modulate disease risk”. Clinical Microbiology Reviews4 (2010): 713-739.
  4. van Tong Hoang., et al. “Parasite Infection, Carcinogenesis and Human Malignancy”. EBioMedicine 15 (2017): 12-23.
  5. Zhijian Gao., et al. “Use of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin and enterotoxin receptor-binding domain (C-CPE) for cancer treatment: opportunities and challenges”. Journal of Toxicology 2012 (2012): 9.
  6. Jain N., et al. “Cancer Scenario in India”. Journal of Genetics and Genomic Sciences 4 (2019): 014.
  7. , et al. “Breast cancer in India: Present scenario and the challenges ahead”. World Journal of Clinical Oncology 13.3 (2022): 209-218.
  8. Menati Rashno., et al. “Microbiome in human cancers”. Access Microbiology8 (2021).
  9. Zur Hausen Harald. “The search for infectious causes of human cancers: where and why”. Virology1 (2009): 1-10.
  10. Misra Vatsala., et al. “Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer: Indian enigma”. World Journal of Gastroenterology6 (2014): 1503-1509.
  11. Jack A Roth., et al. “Gene Therapy for Cancer: What Have We Done and Where Are We Going?”. Journal of the National Cancer Institute1 (1997): 21-39.
  12. Krusch Stefan., et al. “Listeria monocytogenes mediated CFTR transgene transfer to mammalian cells”. The Journal of Gene Medicine 6 (2002): 655-667.
  13. Sizemore D R., et al. “Attenuated Shigella as a DNA delivery vehicle for DNA-mediated immunization”. Science (New York, N.Y.)5234 (1995): 299-302.
  14. Steidler Lothar.., et al. “Biological containment of genetically modified Lactococcus lactis for intestinal delivery of human interleukin 10”. Nature Biotechnology7 (2003): 785-789.
  15. Laliberté J and V B Carruthers. “Host cell manipulation by the human pathogen Toxoplasma gondii”. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences 12 (2008): 1900-1915.
  16. Vaux D L and A Strasser. “The molecular biology of apoptosis”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America6 (1996): 2239-2244.
  17. Ferlay Jacques., et al. “Cancer incidence and mortality worldwide: sources, methods and major patterns in GLOBOCAN 2012”. International Journal of Cancer 5 (2015): 359-386.
  18. Peek Richard M Jr and Martin J Blaser. “Helicobacter pylori and gastrointestinal tract adenocarcinomas”. Nature Reviews Cancer1 (2002): 28-37.
  19. Soleimani N. “The Role of Helicobacter pylori in Gastric Cancer and its Clinical Applications in Cancer Treatment”. Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences 147 (2017): 225-238.
  20. Wroblewski Lydia E., et al. “Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer: factors that modulate disease risk”. Clinical Microbiology Reviews4 (2010): 713-739.
  21. Franco Aime T., et al. “Regulation of gastric carcinogenesis by Helicobacter pylori virulence factors”. Cancer Research2 (2008): 379-387.
  22. Yamaoka Y., et al. “Helicobacter pylori outer membrane proteins and gastroduodenal disease”. Gut6 (2006): 775-781.
  23. Lu Hong., et al. “Duodenal ulcer promoting gene of Helicobacter pylori”. Gastroenterology 4 (2005): 833-848.
  24. Yamaoka Yoshio., et al. “Role of interferon-stimulated responsive element-like element in interleukin-8 promoter in Helicobacter pylori infection”. Gastroenterology4 (2004): 1030-1043.
  25. Correa P. “Human gastric carcinogenesis: a multistep and multifactorial process--First American Cancer Society Award Lecture on Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention”. Cancer Research24 (1992): 6735-6740.
  26. Fuchs C Sand R J Mayer. “Gastric carcinoma”. The New England Journal of Medicine1 (1995): 32-41.
  27. Shikata Kentaro., et al. “A prospective study of dietary salt intake and gastric cancer incidence in a defined Japanese population: the Hisayama study”. International Journal of Cancer1 (2006): 196-201.
  28. Lee Sang-Ah., et al. “Effect of diet and Helicobacter pylori infection to the risk of early gastric cancer”. Journal of Epidemiology3 (2003): 162-168.
  29. Beevers D Gareth., et al. “Salt intake and Helicobacter pylori infection”. Journal of Hypertension8 (2004): 1475-1477.
  30. IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Human Papillomaviruses. Lyon (FR): International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2007. (IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, No. 90.) (2007).
  31. Walboomers J M., et al. “Human papillomavirus is a necessary cause of invasive cervical cancer worldwide”. The Journal of Pathology1 (1999): 12-19.
  32. Reid R., et al. “Genital warts and cervical cancer. I. Evidence of an association between subclinical papillomavirus infection and cervical malignancy”. Cancer 2 (1982): 377-387.
  33. Syrjänen K J and S M Syrjänen. “Human papilloma virus (HPV) infections related to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix”. Annals of Clinical Research2 (1985): 45-56.
  34. Stanley M. “Pathology and Epidemiology of HPV Infection in Females”. Gynecologic Oncology2 (2010): 5-10.
  35. Lehoux Michaël., et al. “Molecular mechanisms of human papillomavirus-induced carcinogenesis”. Public Health Genomics5-6 (2009): 268-280.
  36. B Zhang., et al. “The E7 proteins of low- and high-risk human papillomaviruses share the ability to target the pRB family member p130 for degradation”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2 (2006): 437-442.
  37. White Elizabeth A., et al. “Comprehensive analysis of host cellular interactions with human papillomavirus E6 proteins identifies new E6 binding partners and reflects viral diversity”. Journal of Virology24 (2012): 13174-13186.
  38. Schiffman Mark., et al. “Carcinogenic human papillomavirus infection”. Nature Reviews Disease Primers1 (2016): 16086.
  39. Hjung HM., et al. “miR-375 activates p21 and suppresses telomerase activity by coordinately regulating HPV E6/E7, E6AP, CIP2A, and 14-3-3ζ”. Molecular Cancer1 (2014): 80.
  40. J Groves and N Coleman. “Pathogenesis of human papillomavirus-associated mucosal disease”. The Journal of Pathology 4 (2015): 527-538.
  41. Chee KC., et al. "Human Papillomavirus Infection and Cervical Cancer: Epidemiology, Screening, and Vaccination—Review of Current Perspectives", Journal of Oncology (2019): 11.
  42. Grywalska Ewelina., et al. “Epstein-Barr virus-associated lymphoproliferative disorders”. Postepy Higieny I Medycyny Doswiadczalnej (Online) 67 (2013): 481-490.
  43. Middeldorp Jaap M., et al. “Pathogenic roles for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) gene products in EBV-associated proliferative disorders”. Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology1 (2003): 1-36.
  44. , et al. “Epstein-Barr virus and cancer”. Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research10.3 (2004): 803-821.
  45. , et al. “Malaria - how this parasitic infection aids and abets EBV-associated Burkitt lymphomagenesis”. Current Opinion in Virology20 (2016): 78-84.
  46. Nilsson K. “Human B-lymphoid cell lines”. Human cell1 (1992): 25-41.
  47. “IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans/World Health Organization”. International Agency for Research on Cancer 70 (1997): 1-492.
  48. Wright D H. “What is Burkitt's lymphoma and when is it endemic?”. Blood2 (1999): 758.
  49. , et al. “Global burden of colorectal cancer: emerging trends, risk factors and prevention strategies”. Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology and Hepatology 16.12 (2019): 713-732.
  50. Murphy, Neil., et al. “Lifestyle and dietary environmental factors in colorectal cancer susceptibility”. Molecular Aspects of Medicine 69 (2019): 2-9.
  51. Campos FG. “Colorectal cancer in young adults: A difficult challenge”. World Journal of Gastroenterology 28 (2017): 5041-5044.
  52. Tsai Cheng-En., et al. “Associated factors in Streptococcus bovis bacteremia and colorectal cancer”. The Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences4 (2016): 196-200.
  53. Parkin DM. “International variation”. Oncogene 23 (2004): 6329-6340.
  54. Uemura, N., et al. “Helicobacter pylori infection and the development of gastric cancer”. The New England Journal of Medicine11 (2001): 784-789.
  55. Umeda Mayumi., et al. “Helicobacter pylori CagA causes mitotic impairment and induces chromosomal instability”. The Journal of Biological Chemistry33 (2009): 22166-22172.
  56. Basso Daniela., et al. “Clinical relevance of Helicobacter pylori cagA and vacA gene polymorphisms”. Gastroenterology1 (2008): 91-99.
  57. Moody Cary. "Mechanisms by which HPV Induces a Replication Competent Environment in Differentiating Keratinocytes".Viruses 9 (2017): 261.
  58. Straight SW., et al. “The E5 oncoprotein of human papillomavirus type 16 inhibits the acidification of endosomes in human keratinocytes”. Viruses 5 (1995): 3185-3192.
  59. BURDETTE, W J. “The significance of mutation in relation to the origin of tumors: a review”. Cancer Research4 (1955): 201-26
  60. Gold JS., et al. “Association of Streptococcus bovis Bacteremia With Colonic Neoplasia and Extracolonic Malignancy”. Archives of Surgery7 (2004): 760-765.


Citation: Ashish Pareek and Dhruv Mishra. “Microbial Aspects of Cancer Progression: A Conventional Approach". Acta Scientific Cancer Biology 6.5 (2022): 01-08.


Copyright: © 2022 Ashish Pareek and Dhruv Mishra. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Acceptance rate30%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days

Indexed In

News and Events

Contact US