Acta Scientific Anatomy

Research Article Volume 3 Issue 4

Investigating the Roles of Gut Microbiome in The Progression of Neurodegenerative Diseases: Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (Als)

Emmanson Emmanson Godswill1*, Ogunwale Fawas Abiodun2, Chiamaka Mercy Ogboji3, Ojo oluwakemi Janet4 and Anthonia BO5

1Department of Human Anatomy, University Cross River State, Nigeria
2Department of Human Anatomy, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria
3Department of Human Anatomy, Ebonyi State University, Nigeria
4Department of Human Physiology, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology (LAUTECH), Nigeria
5Department of Pharmacy, Universite De Parakou, Nigeria

*Corresponding Author: Emmanson Emmanson Godswill, Department of Human Anatomy, University Cross River State, Nigeria.

Received: March 13, 2024; Published: March 28, 2024

Abstract

Neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) are a group of disorders that cause progressive and irreversible damage to the nervous system, leading to cognitive, motor, and behavioral impairments. NDs, such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), are major global health challenges, affecting millions of people and imposing significant socioeconomic costs. Despite decades of research, the etiology and pathophysiology of NDs remain poorly understood, and no effective treatments are available to halt or reverse the disease process. Therefore, there is an urgent need to identify novel mechanisms and therapeutic strategies for NDs. In recent years, the gut microbiome, the collective genome of the microorganisms residing in the gastrointestinal tract, has emerged as a key player in the pathogenesis and progression of NDs, providing new insights into potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets. The gut microbiome is a complex and dynamic ecosystem that modulates host physiology, immune function, and metabolism. The gut and the brain communicate bidirectionally through the gut-brain axis (GBA), a multifaceted network that involves neural, hormonal, and immune signaling. The GBA influences neurological health and disease states by regulating various aspects of brain function, such as neurogenesis, synaptic plasticity, neurotransmission, neuroinflammation, and neuroimmunity. Studies have revealed alterations in gut microbiome composition and function in individuals with NDs, indicating a possible causal relationship between gut dysbiosis and disease pathology. For example, in AD, decreased microbial diversity and dysbiosis in specific taxa have been correlated with cognitive impairment and the formation of amyloid-beta plaques in the brain. Likewise, in PD, changes in gut microbiome composition have been associated with motor dysfunction and neuroinflammation, aggravating disease severity. In ALS, dysbiosis in the gut microbial community has been related to disease progression and neuroinflammatory processes. Understanding the role of the gut microbiome in NDs is of paramount importance for several reasons. First, elucidating the molecular mechanisms by which gut microbiome perturbations affect disease pathogenesis may reveal novel therapeutic targets for intervention. Second, identifying microbial biomarkers associated with disease onset and progression could enable early diagnosis and prognosis. Third, modulating the gut microbiome through dietary interventions, probiotics, or fecal microbiota transplantation represents a promising avenue for therapeutic intervention. Despite these advancements, several knowledge gaps and challenges remain. Mechanistic insights into gut microbiome-mediated effects on neurodegeneration are still incomplete, requiring further research. Standardization of methodologies for gut microbiome assessment and translation of research findings into clinical practice are essential for realizing the full potential of microbiome-based interventions in NDs. Therefore, this review aims to comprehensively examine the current understanding of the GBA in AD, PD, and ALS, identify research gaps, and propose future directions for advancing the field.

Keywords: Neurodegenerative diseases, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Gut microbiome, Gut-brain axis, Dysbiosis, Cognitive decline, Motor deficits, Neuroinflammation, Therapeutic interventions

References

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Citation

Citation: Emmanson Emmanson Godswill., et al. “Investigating the Roles of Gut Microbiome in The Progression of Neurodegenerative Diseases: Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (Als)".Acta Scientific Anatomy 3.4 (2024): 36-48.

Copyright

Copyright: © 2024 Emmanson Emmanson Godswill., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.



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