Cancer of the Deadliest: Pancreatic Cancer!
Dhananjay Kumar1, V Shanmukha Varalakshmi2* and Aleeza Muneer3
1Associate Professor, Department of Anatomy, Shri Ram Murti Smarak Institute of Medical Sciences, Bareilly, U.P, India
2Associate Professor, Department of Anatomy, Rohilkhand Medical College and
Hospital, Bareilly, UP, India
3Tutor, Department of Anatomy, Rohilkhand Medical College and Hospital, Bareilly, U.P, India
*Corresponding Author: V Shanmukha Varalakshmi, Associate Professor,
Department of Anatomy, Rajshree Medical Research Institute, India.
August 10, 2023; Published: August 29, 2023
Pancreatic cancer is always difficult to diagnose in early stages and results in high mortality. Pancreas is a deep seated mixed variety of gland having exocrine and endocrine parts. Over 90% of all pancreatic tumours is exocrine in nature. Rest 10% are noticed in endocrine pancreas and are termed as neuroendocrine tumours. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma has the lowest five-year relative survival rate compared to all other solid tumour malignancies and is expected to become the second-leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States by 2030. Even though there are relative advancements in diagnostic tools management of pancreatic cancer is becoming a challenging tsk where only about 4% of patients are expected to survive 5 years after diagnosis. Genetic, racial and hereditary factors are associated with this disease condition. Old age and male gender are more susceptible for its occurrence. Smoking, alcohol consumption are also causative factors for pancreatic cancer. Awareness about the types and stages of pancreatic cancer with the hidden causative factors is the need of the hour.
Keywords: Pancreatic Ductal Adeno Carcinoma; Islets of Langerhans; Neuroendocrine Tumour
- Pancreatic cancer statistics (2018).
- Parkin DM., et al. “Cancer incidence in five continents”. International Agency for Research on Cancer (1997): 7.
- Makrocare (2018).
- Kulke MH. “Metastatic pancreatic cancer”. Current Treatment Options in Oncology 6 (2002):449-457.
- Li D., et al. “BodyMass Index and Risk, Age of onset, and survival in patients with pancreatic cancer”. JAMA24 (2009):2553-2562.
- Sellam F., et al. “Delayed diagnosis of pancreatic cancer reported as more common in a population of North African young adults”. Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology 5 (2015):505-510.
- Vincet A., et al. “The Lancet 9791 (2011):607-20.
- Ilic M and Ilic I. “Epidemiology of pancreatic cancer”. World Journal of Gastroenterology 44 (2016): 9694-9705.
- Campbell PJ., et al. “The patterns and dynamics of genomic instability in metastatic pancreatic cancer”. Nature 467 (2010):1109-1113.
- Jooste V., et al. “Pancreatic cancer: Wait times from presentation to treatment and survival in a population‐based study”. International Journal of Cancer 5 (2016):1073-1080.
- Borghi F., et al. “Embryologic bases of extended radical resection in pancreatic cancer”. The Archives of Surgery 133 (1998): 297-301.
- Kimura W. “Surgical anatomy of the pancreas for limited resection”. Journal of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Sciences 7 (2000):473-479.
- Chowdappa R and Challa VR. “Mesopancreas in pancreatic cancer: where do we stand - review of literature”. Indian Journal of Surgical Oncology 1 (2015):69-74.
- Kayahara M., et al. “Lymphatic flow and neural plexus invasion associated with carcinoma of body and tail of the pancreas”. Cancer12 (1996):2485-2491.
- Yoshioka H and Wakabayashi T. “Therapeutic neurotomy on head of pancreas for relief of pain due to chronic pancreatitis”. Archives of Surgery 76 (1958):546-554.
- Iacobuzio-Donahue CA., et al. “The genetic basis of pancreas cancer development and progression: insights from whole-exome and whole-genome sequencing”. Clinical Cancer Research 16 (2012):4257-4265.
- Longnecker DS., et al. “Racial differences in pancreatic cancer: comparison of survival and histologic types of pancreatic carcinoma in Asians, blacks, and whites in the United States”. Pancreas 21 (2000):338-343.
- Lowenfels AB., et al. “Hereditary Pancreatitis and the Risk of Pancreatic Cancer”. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 6 (1997):442-446.
- Mori M., et al. “A case control study on the risk factors for pancreatic diseases in Kerala, India”. Hepatogastroenterology 25 (1999):25-30.
- Chari ST., et al. “Risk of pancreatic carcinoma in tropical calcifying pancreatitis: an epidemiologic study”. Pancreas1 (1994):62-66.
- Howe GR., et al. “Cigarette smoking and cancer of the pancreas: Evidence from a population‐based case‐control study in Toronto, Canada” 47.3 (1991):323-328.
- Simona Iodice S., et al. “Tobacco and the risk of pancreatic cancer: a review and meta-analysis”. Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery 393 (2008):535-545.
- NCRP – ncdirindia (2018).
- Adhoute X., et al. “Subsequent resection of locally advanced pancreatic carcinoma after chemoradiotherapy”. Gastroentérologie Clinique et Biologique 30(2006): 224-230.
- Yachida S., et al. “Distant metastasis occurs late during the genetic evolution of pancreatic cancer”. Nature 467(2010): 1114-1117.