Effect of Calabash Chalk on the Walls Of the Uterine Body (Corpus Uteri) of Adult Female Wistar Rat
Joshua Izuchukwu Abugu1*, Udodi Princewill Sopuluchukwu1 and Oladosu Olajumoke Blessing2
1Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus, Anambra State, Nigeria
2Department of Anatomy, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria
*Corresponding Author: Joshua Izuchukwu Abugu, Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus, Anambra State, Nigeria.
December 02, 2022; Published:December 19, 2022
Calabash chalk is a naturally occurring minerals, predominantly consumed by pregnant women for its antiemetic effects, it is prepared from clay and mud made up of lead, arsenic, sand and wood ash. This study was aimed at establishing the effect of Calabash chalk on the wall of the uterine body. Sixteen Adult female wistar rats weighing between 150-200g were assigned into four groups. Group A animals served as the control and received food and distilled water only, while group B, C and D served as experimental groups that received 1000 mg/kg, 2000 mg/kg and 3000 mg/kg of aqueous extract of calabash chalk respectively. The extract administration lasted for 28days. On day 29 the animals were anaesthesized using chloroform vapour and were sacrificed. The blood was aspirated by cardiac puncture for hormonal Analysis and uterus were harvested, weighed and fixed in 10% buffered formalin for histological examination. Data was Analysed using SPSS version 25. Results from this present study showed a significant increase in Body weight of group C (P = 0.028), while Group B (p = 0.192) and group D (p = 0.065), showed a non significant decrease, when compared to group A. It was also noticed that there was a non significant increase in relative uterine weight of Groups B (P = 0.828) and C (P = 0.828) when compared to group A, while Group D (P = 0.004) showed a significant increase. The study also present that there was a non significant decrease in Estrogen level in groups B, C and D when compared to Group A, Progesterone results showed a significant decrease in groups B,C and D when compared to group A. Histological findings showed a mild, moderate to severe damage to the walls of the uterine cavity in groups B,C and D respectively when compared to the control group. This could account for certain levels of miscarriage experienced among pregnant women due to poor implantation of the foetus on the uterine wall, further investigation should be carried out on the incidence of miscarriage among pregnant women that consumes Calabash chalk, to establish the etiology of miscarriage, suggested by this scientific investigation.
Keyword: Uterus; Calabash Chalk; Wistar Rats; Miscarriage; Lead
- Abdou HM and Newairy AA. “Hepatic and reproductive toxicity of lead in female rats and attenuation by flaxseed”. Journal of Medical Research Institute 27 (2006): 295-302.
- Abraham PW., et al. “Iron nutrition and possible lead toxicity: an appraisal of geophagy undertaken by pregnant women of UK, Asian communities”. Applied Geochemistry 21 (2006): 98-108.
- Akpantah AO., et al. “The effect of calabash chalk on some hematological parameters in female adult Wistar rats”. Turkish Journal of Hematology3 (2010): 177-181.
- Ameer MA., et al. “Anatomy, Abdomen and Pelvis, Uterus”. Updated 2021 Feb 11. In: StatPearls Internet. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing (2021).
- Abrahams PW., et al. “Human Geophagia, Calabash Chalk and Undongo: Mineral Element Nutritional Implications”. PLoS ONE 8 (1 (2013).
- Angshumoy Roy and Martin M Matzuk. “Reproductive tract function and dysfunction in women”. Nature Reviews Endocrinology 7 (2011): 517-525.
- Brunton LL., et al. “Principles of toxicology". Goodman and Gilman's Manual of Pharmacology and Therapeutics (2007): 1131
- Chaudhry SR and Chaudhry K. “Anatomy, Abdomen and Pelvis, Uterus Round Ligament”. StatPearls Publishing; Treasure Island (FL): Aug 23, (2020).
- Dean JR., et al. “Characterisation and analysis of persistent organic pollutants and major, minor and trace elements in Calabash chalk”. Chemosphere1 (2004): 21-25.
- Dominy NJ., et al. “Adaptive function of soil consumption: An in vitro study modeling the human stomach and small intestine”. Journal Experimental Biology 207 (2004): 319-324.
- Ekong M., et al. “Potency of calabash chalk on the liver function and histomorphology”. Journal of Medical Research and Practice 2 (2013): 203-207.
- Ekanem TB., et al. “Maternal Geophagy of Calabash Chalk on Foetal Cerebral Cortex Histomorphology”. The Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences: MJMS4 (2015): 17-22.
- Ekong MB., et al. “Evaluation of calabash chalk effect of femur bone morphometry and mineralization in young wistar rats: A pilot study". International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research2 (2012): 107-110.
- Dumitrescu E., et al. “The consequences of chronic lead acetate intake on exposure and morphological integrity biomarkers (lead level and weight of sexual organs) in female rats”. Lucr Şt Med Vet Timişoara Luc Stii Medi Veteri XLI (2008): 619-622.
- Eugenia D., et al. “The consequences of in utero exposure to lead acetate on exposure and integrity biomarkers of reproductive system in female rats at sexual maturity”. Lucr Şt Med Vet Timişoara Luc Stii Medi Veteri XLII (2009): 295-300.
- Franks PA., et al. “Effects of lead on luteal function in rhesus monkeys”. Biology of Reproduction 41 (1989): 1055-1062.
- Food and Drug Administration (FDA). “Calabash chalk, Traditional Remedy for Morning Sickness”. US Food and Drug Administration Press Release-Texas Department of State Health Services (2009).
- Gray CA., et al. “Evidence that absence of endometrial gland secretions in uterine gland knockout ewes compromises conceptus survival and elongation”. Reproduction 124 (2002): 289-300.
- Huseman CA., et al. “Neuroendocrine effects of toxic and low blood lead levels in children”. Pediatrics 90 (1992): 186-189.
- International Federation of Gynecology and Obsterics (FIGO). Updated cancer report, published in the of International Journal Gynecology and Obstetrics (2018).
- Irva Hert-Picciotto. “The evidence that lead increases the risk for spontaneous abortion”. American Journal of Industrial Medicine3 (2000): 300-309.
- Krege JH., et al. “Generation and reproductive phenotypes of mice lacking estrogen receptor β”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States 95 (1998): 15677-15682.
- Luby J and Joan L. “Handbook of Preschool Mental Health Development, Disorders and Treatment”. New York: Guilford Press; (2009).
- Lorke D. “A new approach to practical acute toxicity testing”. Archive of Toxicology 54 (1983): 275-287.
- Ma WG., et al. “Estrogen is a critical determinant that specifies the duration of the window of uterine receptivity for implantation”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States 100 (2003): 2963-2968.
- Mote PA., et al. “Overlapping and distinct expression of progesterone receptors A and B in mouse uterus and mammary gland during the estrous cycle”. Endocrinology 147 (2006): 5503-5512.
- Nakade PU., et al. “Lead-induced adverse effect on the reproductive system of rats with particular reference to histopathogical changes in uterus”. Indian Journal of Pharmacology1 (2015): 22-26.
- Okeke C and Obasi C. “Semantic content of Igbo traditional”. International Journal of Linguistic Lit. 3 (2014): 47-62.
- Oyewopo AO., et al. “Histological and hormonal studies of calabash chalk on ovarian function in adult female Wistar rats”. Journal of Morphological Sciences 3 (2017): 173-177.
- Popoola OE., et al. “Heavy Metal Content and Antimicrobial Activities of some naturally occurring Facial Cosmetics from South Eastern Nigeria”. Ife Journal of Science 15 (2013): 637.
- Psychoyos A. “Uterine receptivity for nidation”. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 476 (1986): 36-42.
- Qureshi N and Sharma R. “Lead toxicity and infertility in female swiss mice: A review”. Journal of Chemical, Biological and Physical Sciences 2 (2012): 1849-1861.
- Scinicariello F., et al. “Blood lead level association with lower body weight in NHANES 1999-2006”. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology3 (2013): 516-523.
- Spencer TE and Bazer FW. “Uterine and placental factors regulating conceptus growth in domestic animals”. Journal of Animal Science 82 (2004): E4-13.
- Udayraj Premdas Nakade., et al. “Lead-induced adverse effects on the reproductive system of rats with particular reference to histopathological changes in uterus”. Indian Journal of Pharmacology1 (2015): 22-26.
- Woywodt A and Kiss A. “Geophagia: The history of earth-eating”. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 95 (2002): 143-146.
- Wylie L. “Essential Anatomy and physiology in maternity care”. Elsevier, churchil Livingstone, London (2005).
- Chiara M., et al. “Geophagic population structure in Epstein-Barr Virus revealed by comparative genomics, genome biology and evolution”. 811 (2016): 3284-3291.
- Nina NT., et al. “Effect of chronic exposure to lead on estrogen action in the prepubertal rat uterus”. Environmental Toxicology4 (2003): 268-277.
- Ajayi OO., et al. “Progesterone, selected heavy metals and micronutrients in pregnant Nigerian women with a history of recurrent spontaneous abortion”. Journal of African Health Sciences2 (2012): 153-159.