Acta Scientific Agriculture (ASAG)(ISSN: 2581-365X)

Review Article Volume 8 Issue 8

Revisiting the Green Revolution in India: Assessing Achievements, Challenges, and Future Prospects

V Basil Hans1* and Seema Prabhu S2

1Research Professor, Srinivas University, Mangalore, India
2Assistant Professor of Commerce, Canara College, Mangalore, India

*Corresponding Author: V Basil Hans, Research Professor, Srinivas University, Mangalore, India.

Received: May 08, 2024; Published: July 10, 2024


The word “Green Revolution” was coined by William S. Gaud of United States Agency for International Development (USAID) in 1968, for the introduction of new technology and policies implemented in the developing nations with aids from industrialized nations between the 1940s and the 1960s to increase the production and yield of food crops. Many high-yielding varieties (HYVs) were introduced as part of the Green Revolution to increase agricultural productivity [1].
The Green Revolution in India, initiated in the late 1960s, marked a significant turning point in the country's agricultural landscape, aiming to boost food production and alleviate poverty. Decades later, as India grapples with issues of sustainability, food security, and environmental degradation, there is a critical need to revisit the Green Revolution's impact and legacy.
This article provides a comprehensive analysis of the Green Revolution's achievements, challenges, and future prospects in India. It explores the historical context and the driving forces behind the Green Revolution, examining its impact on agricultural productivity, rural livelihoods, and socio-economic dynamics. Despite its initial success in increasing food production and alleviating hunger, the Green Revolution also brought forth a range of challenges. Issues such as environmental degradation, soil fertility depletion, water scarcity, and socio-economic disparities have emerged as significant concerns, casting a shadow on the sustainability of the Green Revolution model.
Furthermore, the article discusses the contemporary relevance of the Green Revolution in the context of shifting global dynamics, technological advancements, and climate change. It underscores the need for a holistic approach towards agricultural development that integrates principles of sustainability, equity, and resilience. Drawing on lessons learned from the past and insights from current research, the article proposes strategies to revitalize India's agricultural sector while addressing the shortcomings of the Green Revolution paradigm. These include promoting agroecological approaches, investing in rural infrastructure, enhancing farmer resilience, and fostering inclusive policies that prioritize the needs of smallholder farmers and marginalized communities.
In conclusion, the article advocates for a nuanced understanding of the Green Revolution's legacy and calls for a renewed commitment to sustainable agricultural development in India. By leveraging innovation, technology, and participatory approaches, India can chart a path towards food security, environmental stewardship, and inclusive growth in the 21st century.

Keywords: Climate Change; Green Revolution; HYV Seeds; India; Irrigation


  1. Nelson Ravichandran and Anthony. “The impact of the Green Revolution on indigenous crops of India”. Journal of Ethnic Foods 8 (2019).
  2. Chakravarthi AK. “Green Revolition in India”. Annals of the Association of American Geographers3 (1973): 319-330.
  3. M Prahladachar. “Income distribution effects of the green revolution in India: A review of empirical evidence”. World Development11 (1983): 927-944.
  4. Glenn Davis Stone. “Commentary: New histories of the Indian Green Revolution”. The Geographical Journal (2019).
  5. Kapil Subramanian. “Revisiting the Green Revolution: Irrigation and Food Production in Twentieth-Century India”. A thesis submitted in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. King's College, London Department of History (2015).


Citation: V Basil Hans and Seema Prabhu S. “Revisiting the Green Revolution in India: Assessing Achievements, Challenges, and Future Prospects". Acta Scientific Agriculture 8.8 (2024): 24-30.


Copyright: © 2024 V Basil Hans and Seema Prabhu S. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


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