Linda Carla Moraes Lima1, Angela Civalsci Cubaski1, Mirian Ueda Yamaguchi2 and Marcelo Picinin Bernuci2*
1Department of Medicine, Cesumar University (UniCesumar), Maringá,
2Health Promotion Department, Cesumar University (Uni Cesumar), Cesumar Institute of Science, Technology and Innovation (ICETI), Maringa, Paraná, Brazil
*Corresponding Author: Marcelo Picinin Bernuci, Department of Promotion of Health, Cesumar University (UniCesumar), Cesumar Institute of Science, Technology and Innovation (ICETI), Maringá, Paraná, Brazil.
Received: December 17, 2020; Published: January 21, 2021
Recent studies have demonstrated the multifactorial characteristics of the development of metabolic disorders that have shown the necessity for new research in the area, with the objective of unravelling the factors that could possibly influence critical stages of human development, altering a patient’s metabolic programming. This study aims to identify the main elements that endorse the biological incorporation of these events on an intrauterine environment or on the first years of life, assessing the potential epigenetic, endocrinological and metabolic mechanisms responsible for this process. The goal of this analysis is to state which main factors allow broader studies to develop specific intervention models for the prevention of metabolic disorders, particularly obesity. This systematic review was based on the PRISMA-E 2012(Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) and registered on PROSPERO (Nº CRD42020197344). The research and selection of the articles occurred in June-July 2020 and used the United States National Library of Medicine PubMed – Medline and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases, and clinical trials that focused on the analysis of influencing factors on metabolic programming were collected. In this study, we discuss how these elements are capable of influencing critical periods of human development and its potential consequences for the affected individuals, with the objective of identifying possible targets for future interventions. Sixty-two articles were identified and included in this systematic review. Among the selected articles, twelve were directly related to epigenetics, fourteen were related to obesity, sixteen were nutrition related and twelve were focused on diabetes. The data revised showed that stress, excessive weight and maternal malnutrition are potential fetal metabolism modifiers that result in disorders that can predispose to child obesity. It was also demonstrated that gestational diabetes and dyslipidemia are conditions that can influence the fetus’ levels of adiposity and that epigenetics can directly alter fetal programming, resulting in significant metabolic alterations, including the predisposition to weight disorders in the child. In conclusion, epigenesis presented itself as an important way for biological incorporation of the heritability of metabolic diseases, through the methylation and deacetylation pathways, becoming an important factor in future studies focusing on possible interventions for the prevention of these disorders.
Keywords: Metabolic Programming; Biological Incorporation; Risk Factors; Metabolic Disorders; Mother-Child Overweight
Citation: Marcelo Picinin Bernuci., et al. “Epigenetic and Metabolic Alterations that Interfere in Human Development and Predispose the Manifestation of Obesity and Other Metabolic Disorders: A Systematic Review".Acta Scientific Nutritional Health 5.2 (2021): 107-119.
Copyright: © 2021 Marcelo Picinin Bernuci., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.