Acta Scientific Nutritional Health (ASNH)(ISSN: 2582-1423)

Review Article Volume 4 Issue 3

Antioxidant Enzymes and their Role in Preventing Cell Damage

Amra Bratovcic*

Department of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, University of Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina

*Corresponding Author: Amra Bratovcic, Department of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, University of Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Received: February 20, 2020; Published: February 29, 2020



  Reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as superoxide anion (O2•−), nitric oxide (NO•) hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and hydroxyl radical (HO•), consist of radical and non-radical oxygen species formed by the partial reduction of oxygen. The accumulation of ROS in cells may cause damage of nucleic acids, proteins, lipids and may cause cell death and trigger oxidative stress which yield to the development and progression of several diseases. Furthermore, ROS may promote tumour metastasis through gene activation. It is important to emphasize that equilibrium between the production and elimination of toxic levels of ROS is sustained by enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants. When oxidative stress arises as a consequence of high level of ROS, a defence system promotes the regulation and expression of several nonenzymatic and enzymatic antioxidant. To cope with potentially damaging ROS, aerobic tissues contain endogenously produced antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase and several exogenously acquired radical-scavenging substances such as vitamins E and C, carotenoids and tocopherols. Afterward, both zinc and selenium are intimately involved in protecting the body against oxidant stress. In addition, it was reveal that supplementation with exogenous antioxidants or boosting of endogenous antioxidants is a promising method of countering the undesirable effects of oxidative stress on the human body.

Keywords: Reactive Oxygen Species; Antioxidant Enzymes; Cell Damage



  1. Kurutas EB. “The importance of antioxidants which play the role in cellular response against oxidative/nitrosative stress: current state”. Nutrition Journal 15.71 (2016): 1-22.
  2. Singh K., et al. “Antioxidants as precision weapons in war against cancer chemotherapy induced toxicity - Exploring the armoury of obscurity”. Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal 26.2 (2018): 177-190.
  3. Ali SS., et al. “Indian medicinal herbs as sources of antioxidants”. Food Research International 41.1 (2008): 1-15.
  4. Evans P and Halliwell B. “Free radicals and hearing: Cause, consequence, and criteria”. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 884 (1999): 19-40.
  5. Neta P., et al. “Rate constants for reactions of peroxyl radicals in fluid solutions”. Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data 19 (1990): 413-513.
  6. Hawkins CL and Davies MJ. Generation and propagation of radical reactions on proteins”. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1504.2-3 (2001): 196-219.
  7. Haber F and Weiss J. “The catalytic decomposition of hydrogen peroxide by iron salts”. Proceedings of the Royal Society 147 (1934): 332-351.
  8. Lloyd RV., et al. “The origin of the hydroxyl radical oxygen in the Fenton reaction”. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 22.5 (1997): 885-888.
  9. Collin F. “Chemical Basis of Reactive Oxygen Species Reactivity and Involvement in Neurodegenerative Diseases”. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 20.10 (2019): 2407.
  10. Kurutas EB., et al. “The effects of oxidative stress in urinary tract infection”. Mediators of Inflammation 4 (2005): 242-244.
  11. Valko M., et al. “Free radicals and antioxidants in normal physiological functions and human disease”. The International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology 39.1 (2007): 44-84.
  12. Barbacanne MA., et al. “Detection of superoxide anion released extracellularly by endothelial cells using cytochrome c reduction, ESR, fluorescence and lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence techniques”. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 29.5 (2000): 388-396.
  13. Masters CJ. “Cellular signalling: the role of the peroxisome”. Cell Signal 8.3 (1996): 197-208.
  14. Dröge W. “Free radicals in the physiological control of cell function”. Physiology Review 82.1 (2002): 47-95.
  15. Valko M., et al. “Free radicals, metals and antioxidants in oxidative stress-induced cancer”. Chemico-Biological Interactions 160.1 (2006): 1-40.
  16. Haida Z and Hakiman M. “A comprehensive review on the determination of enzymatic assay and nonenzymatic antioxidant activities”. Food Science and Nutrition 7.5 (2019): 1555-1563.
  17. Mangge H., et al. “Antioxidants, inflammation and cardiovascular disease”. World Journal of Cardiology 6.6 (2014): 462-477.
  18. Ighodaro OM and Akinloye OA. “First line defence antioxidants-superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX): Their fundamental role in the entire antioxidant defence grid”. Alexandria Journal of Medicine 54.4 (2018): 287-293.
  19. Younus H. “Therapeutic potentials of superoxide dismutase”. International Journal of Health Sciences 12.3 (2018): 88-93.
  20. Yasui K and Baba A. “Therapeutic potential of superoxide dismutase (SOD) for resolution of inflammation”. Inflammation Research 55.9 (2006): 359-363.
  21. Inal ME., et al. “Antioxidant enzyme activities and malondialdehyde levels related to aging”. Clinica Chimica Acta 305.1-2 (2001): 75-80.
  22. Mulgund A., et al. The Role of Oxidative Stress in Endometriosis, Handbook of Fertility, Nutrition, Diet, Lifestyle and Reproductive Health (2015): 273-281.
  23. Sharma I and Ahmad P. “Catalase: A Versatile Antioxidant in Plants”. In Oxidative Damage to Plants, Antioxidant Networks and Signaling (2014): 131-148.
  24. Bratovcic A and Saric E. “Biogenic Elements as Cofactors in Enzymes and Their Amount in the Chia Seed”. In: Karabegović I. (eds) New Technologies, Development and Application II. NT 2019. Lecture Notes in Networks and Systems. Springer, Cham (2020).
  25. Bratovcic A and Saric E. “Determination of essential nutrients and cadmium in the white quinoa and amaranth seeds”. Croatian Journal of Food Science and Technology 11.1 (2019): 135-1390.
  26. Eintemiller RR and Lee J. “Vitamin E: Food chemistry, composition and analysis”. Marcel Dekker, New York (2004). 
  27. Traber MG and Atkinson J. “Vitamin E, antioxidant and nothing more”. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 43.1 (2007): 4-15.
  28. Buettner GR. “The pecking order of free radicals and antioxidants: lipid peroxidation, alpha-tocopherol, and ascorbate”. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 300.2 (1993): 535-543.
  29. Neuzil J., et al. “Alpha-tocopheryl hydroquinone is an efficient multifunctional inhibitor of radical-initiated oxidation of low density lipoprotein lipids”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 94.15 (1997): 7885-7890.
  30. Traber and Stevens. “Vitamins C and E: Beneficial effects from a mechanistic perspective”. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 51.5 (2011): 1000-1013.
  31. Kancheva VD., et al. “Bio-antioxidants—A chemical base of their antioxidant activity and beneficial effect on human health”. Current Medicinal Chemistry 20.37 (2013): 4784-4805.
  32. Griffiths K., et al. “Food Antioxidants and Their Anti-Inflammatory Properties: A Potential Role in Cardiovascular Diseases and Cancer Prevention”. Diseases 4.3 (2016): 28.
  33. Franco R., et al. “Chemical rules on the assessment of antioxidant potential in food and food additives aimed at reducing oxidative stress and neurodegeneration”. Food Chemistry 235 (2017): 318-323.
  34. Jurikova T., et al. “Fruits of black chokeberry aronia melanocarpa in the prevention of chronic diseases”. Molecules 22.6 (2017): 944.
  35. Bratovčić A., et al. “Determination of physical-chemical properties and stability of orange juice at room temperature”. Sixth International Scientific Conference, June 5th - World Environment Day 6.6 (2018): 76-88.
  36. Morita M., et al. “Antioxidant action of fermented grain food supplement: Scavenging of peroxyl radicals and inhibition of plasma lipid oxidation induced by multiple oxidants”. Food Chemistry 237 (2017): 574-580.
  37. Ayala A., et al. “Lipid peroxidation: Production, metabolism, and signaling mechanisms of malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal”. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity (2014): 1-33.
  38. Conti V., et al. “Antioxidant Supplementation in the Treatment of Aging-Associated Diseases”. Frontiers in Pharmacology 7 (2016): 1-11.
  39. Wells WW and Xu DP. “Dehydroascorbate reduction”. Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes 26 (1994): 369-377.
  40. Cardenas E and Ghosh R. “Vitamin E: a dark horse at the crossroad of cancer management”. Biochemistry and Pharmacology 86.7 (2013): 845-852.
  41. Harikumar KB and Aggarwal BB. “Resveratrol: a multitargeted agent for age-associated chronic diseases”. Cell Cycle 7 (2008): 1020-1035.
  42. Bhullar KS., et al. “Curcumin and its carbocyclic analogs: structure-activity in relation to antioxidant and selected biological properties”. Molecules 18 (2013): 5389-5404.
  43. Brondino N., et al. “Curcumin as a therapeutic agent in dementia: amini systematic review of human studies”. The Scientific World Journal (2014): 174282.
  44. Waterman E and Lockwood B. “Active components and clinical applications of olive oil”. Alternative Medicine Review 12 (2007): 331-342.
  45. Notomista E., et al. “Tuning the specificity of the recombinant multicomponent tolueneo-xylene monooxygenase from Pseudomonas sp. strain OX1 for the biosynthesis of tyrosol from 2-phenylethanol”. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 77 (2011): 5428-5437.
  46. Bulotta S., et al. “Beneficial effects of the olive oil phenolic components oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol: focus on protection against cardiovascular and metabolic diseases”. Journal of Translational Medicine 12 (2014): 219.
  47. Bhagavan HN and Chopra RK. “Plasma coenzyme Q10 response to oral ingestion of coenzyme Q10 formulations”. Mitochondrion 7 (2007): S78-S88.
  48. Forsmark-Andrée P., et al. “Endogenous ubiquinol prevents protein modification accompanying lipid peroxidation in beef heart submitochondrial particles”. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 19 (1995): 749-757.
  49. Bentinger M., et al. “The antioxidant role of coenzyme Q”. Mitochondrion 7 (2007): S41-S50.


Citation: Amra Bratovcic. “Antioxidant Enzymes and their Role in Preventing Cell Damage". Acta Scientific Nutritional Health 4.3 (2020): 132-138.

Indexed In

News and Events

  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is February 05, 2021.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of “Best Article of the Issue”.
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.
  • Contact US