Acta Scientific Nutritional Health (ASNH)(ISSN: 2582-1423)

Review Article Volume 4 Issue 3

Antioxidant Enzymes and their Role in Preventing Cell Damage

Amra Bratovcic*

Department of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, University of Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina

*Corresponding Author: Amra Bratovcic, Department of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, University of Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Received: February 20, 2020; Published: February 29, 2020

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Abstract

  Reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as superoxide anion (O2•−), nitric oxide (NO•) hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and hydroxyl radical (HO•), consist of radical and non-radical oxygen species formed by the partial reduction of oxygen. The accumulation of ROS in cells may cause damage of nucleic acids, proteins, lipids and may cause cell death and trigger oxidative stress which yield to the development and progression of several diseases. Furthermore, ROS may promote tumour metastasis through gene activation. It is important to emphasize that equilibrium between the production and elimination of toxic levels of ROS is sustained by enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants. When oxidative stress arises as a consequence of high level of ROS, a defence system promotes the regulation and expression of several nonenzymatic and enzymatic antioxidant. To cope with potentially damaging ROS, aerobic tissues contain endogenously produced antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase and several exogenously acquired radical-scavenging substances such as vitamins E and C, carotenoids and tocopherols. Afterward, both zinc and selenium are intimately involved in protecting the body against oxidant stress. In addition, it was reveal that supplementation with exogenous antioxidants or boosting of endogenous antioxidants is a promising method of countering the undesirable effects of oxidative stress on the human body.

Keywords: Reactive Oxygen Species; Antioxidant Enzymes; Cell Damage

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Citation

Citation: Amra Bratovcic. “Antioxidant Enzymes and their Role in Preventing Cell Damage". Acta Scientific Nutritional Health 4.3 (2020): 132-138.



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