Acta Scientific Clinical Case Reports

Research Article Volume 2 Issue 8

Prevalence of Refractive Errors among Different Age Groups in Patients Presented to Ophthalmology OPD, of Al-Nafees Medical College Hospital

Daniyal Ahmed*, Chaudhary Waleed Tariq, Muhammad Ammar, Ammar Ahmed Butt and Imran Afzal

5th Year Medical Student, Al-Nafees Medical College and Hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan.

*Corresponding Author: Daniyal Ahmed, 5th Year Medical Student, Al-Nafees Medical College and Hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Received: May 27, 2021; Published: July 06, 2021


Objective: To find the prevalence of refractive errors among different age groups and in both genders.

Study Design: A descriptive cross sectional study.

Study Setting and Duration: Ophthalmology OPD patients of Al- Nafees Hospital over the period of 8 weeks from 1st May 2016 to 30th June 2016.

Methodology: A convenient sampling technique was used for 150 (N) participants. A designed questionnaire with close ended questions for the study was used. The patients that were coming to ophthalmology OPD that gave written consent were included in our study. The parameters like age and gender was filled and the data regarding refractive errors was collected while they were examined by the doctor in ophthalmology OPD. All the data was collected, filled in questionnaires and entered in SPSS version 23 by medical students. The collected data was then analyzed for frequency in terms of percentages by using SPSS version 23.

Results: A total of 150 participants were selected for our study out of which 140 participants responded, so our response rate was 93.3%, among whom 66% were males and 34% were females. With respect to refractive errors 22% were emmetropic, 43% were myopic, 5% were High Myopic (Short-Sighted patients were 48%), 12% Hyperopic, 12% Presbyopic (Far-Sighted patients were 24%), 9% were having Anisometropia and 11% were having Astigmatism.

Conclusion: As the age increases the chances to have refractive errors increases, myopia is more common than hyperopia at younger age but at old age Presbyopia is more common. Similarly, the chances to have astigmatism and anisometropia increases with the increasing age. Myopia and astigmatism was the most prevalent refractive error found especially in early adulthood. Refractive errors vary in population among genders.

Keywords: Ophthalmology; Age; Refractive Errors; Gender; Prevalence


  1. Pan CW., et al. “Worldwide prevalence and risk factors for myopia”. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics1 (2012): 3-16.
  2. Morgan IG., et al. “Myopia”. The Lancet9827 (2012): 1739-1748.
  3. Pan CW., et al. “Racial variations in the prevalence of refractive errors in the United States: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis”. American Journal of Ophthalmology6 (2013): 1129-1138.
  4. World Health Organisation. Global data on visual impairment (2010).
  5. Chin MP., et al. “Prevalence of visual impairment and refractive errors among different ethnic groups in schoolchildren in Turpan, China”. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics3 (2015): 263-270.
  6. Kim EC., et al. “Prevalence and risk factors for refractive errors: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2011”. PLoS One11 (2013): e80361.
  7. Pan CW., et al. “Prevalence of Refractive Errors in a Multiethnic Asian Population: The Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Disease Study Refractive Errors in Singapore”. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science4 (2013): 2590-2598.
  8. Neelam K., et al. “Choroidal neovascularization in pathological myopia”. Progress in Retinal and Eye Research5 (2015): 495-525.
  9. Wolfram C., et al. “Prevalence of refractive errors in the European adult population: the Gutenberg Health Study (GHS)”. British Journal of Ophthalmology7 (2014): 857-861.
  10. Hyman L. “Myopic and hyperopic refractive error in adults: an overview”. Ophthalmic Epidemiology 4 (2007): 192-197.
  11. Sawada A., et al. “Refractive errors in an elderly Japanese population: the Tajimi study”. Ophthalmology 2 (2008): 363-370.
  12. Antón A., et al. “Epidemiology of refractive errors in an adult European population: the Segovia study”. Ophthalmic Epidemiology4 (2009): 231-237.
  13. Foster PJ., et al. “Refractive error, axial length and anterior chamber depth of the eye in British adults: the EPIC-Norfolk Eye Study”. British Journal of Ophthalmology7 (2010): 827-830.
  14. Saw SM., et al. “Prevalence and risk factors for refractive errors in the Singapore Malay Eye Survey”. Ophthalmology 10 (2008): 1713-1719.


Citation: Daniyal Ahmed., et al. “Prevalence of Refractive Errors among Different Age Groups in Patients Presented to Ophthalmology OPD, of Al-Nafees Medical College Hospital". Acta Scientific Clinical Case Reports 2.8 (2021): 02-06.


Copyright: © 2021 Daniyal Ahmed., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Acceptance rate30%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days
Impact Factor1.278

Indexed In

News and Events

  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is May 30, 2024.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of "Best Article of the Issue"
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.

Contact US