Ateba Ndongo Francis1*, Ndongo Jean Audrey1, Tejiokem Mathurin2, Kameni Carine1, Koki Paul1 and Msellati Philippe3
1Centre Mère-enfant, Fondation Chantal Biya, Yaoundé, Cameroun
2Centre Pasteur du Cameroun, Yaoundé, Cameroon
3UMI 233, IRD/U 1175, PACCI Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire
*Corresponding Author: Ateba Ndongo Francis, Centre Mère-enfant, Fondation Chantal Biya, Yaoundé, Cameroun.
Received: June 16, 2020; Published: September 16, 2020
Introduction: Paediatric Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection remains a Public Health issue in developing countries. Survival of HIV-infected children is closely related to early combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). Thus, it is very important to improve access to Prevention of Mother To Child Transmission of HIV (PMTCT), diagnosis and care. This study at assessing Mother to Child Transmission of HIV (MTCT) and to identify factors associated with MTCT in infants born of HIV-infected mothers and routinely followed in referral pediatric hospital in Yaounde, Cameroon.
Methods: In this cohort study, we included all the HIV-exposed infants who attended at least once the Day Care Unit of the “Centre Mère et Enfant de Yaoundé”, Chantal Biya Foundation, Cameroon, from 2009 to 2013. The Early Infant Diagnosis of HIV (EID) using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was proposed from the age of 6 weeks, and the HIV serology was conducted from the age of 12 months. HIV-exposed infants were classified according to HIV status as following: 1) HIV-infected infants, 2) HIV-uninfected infants, 3) infants not tested or with no HIV test result available. Association between the HIV status outcome and the exposure variables was assessed using multivariate logistic regression, including factors with a p-value < 0.20 in univariate analysis and other potential risk factors of MTCT. Infants with indeterminate HIV status were excluded both in univariate and multivariate analysis.
Results: Of 2,768 HIV-exposed infants, 2068 were HIV-uninfected (1 death, 1150 uncompleted follow-up), 322 were HIV-infected (19 deaths, 8 uncompleted follow-up) and 378 were not tested for HIV status or with no result available (23 deaths). Mean follow-up=260 days. 1,434 boys and 1,334 girls. When the mother and/or the infant received any antiretroviral treatment, MTCT was 5.64% versus 43.6% when mother and child received nothing as a treatment. The main factor associated with lower MTCT was history of any antiretroviral treatment in HIV-infected mother or HIV-exposed infant. Artificial feeding and antenatal monitoring of HIV-infected mother in a referral hospital were also associated with lower MTCT.
Conclusion: In a routine program, as expected, MTCT is much more important among HIV-exposed infants or mothers who did not have access to antiretroviral drugs for PMTCT. Moreover, access to HIV testing and PMTCT must be increased, especially in private and peripheral level health facilities.
Keywords: Child Transmission; HIV; PMTCT
Citation: Ateba Ndongo Francis., et al. “Reporting of Five Years Mother to Child Transmission of HIV among HIV-Exposed Infants Followed from 2009-2013 in the “Centre et Mère et Enfant de Yaoundé”, Chantal Biya Foundation, Cameroon". Acta Scientific Women's Health 2.9 (2020): 03-09.
Copyright: © 2020 Ateba Ndongo Francis., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.