Acta Scientific Pharmaceutical Sciences (ASPS)(ISSN: 2581-5423)

Research Article Volume 4 Issue 12

Epilepsy and its Management - A Brief Review

K Sravanthi1*, M Kesava Krishna1, K Bhavani2, A Sireesha3 and AVD Sai Mani Kumar4

1Department of Pharmacy Practice, Narasaraopeta Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Narasaraopet, Andhra Pradesh, India
2Department of Pharmacy Practice, Geethanjali College of Pharmacy, Telangana, India
3Department of Pharmacy Practice, Balaji Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Telangana, India
4Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vallabhaneni Venkatadri Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Andhra Pradesh, India

*Corresponding Author: K Sravanthi, Department of Pharmacy Practice, Narasaraopeta Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Narasaraopet, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Received: November 27, 2020; Published: December 10, 2020

×

Abstract

  Epilepsy is a neurological disorder which is characterized by sudden episodes of disturbances in sensory, loss of consciousness, that is associated with abnormal electrical impulses in the brain, which requires typically two unprovoked seizures. The incidence of a first unprovoked seizure was 61 per 100,000 compared to the incidence of epilepsy of 44 per 100,000. The International League against Epilepsy (ILAE) has proposed two major schemes for the classification of Seizures and Epilepsies: The International Classification of Epileptic Seizures and the International Classification of the Epilepsies and Epilepsy Syndromes. A seizure results when a sudden imbalance occurs between the excitatory and inhibitory forces within the network of cortical neurons. The management of Epilepsy can be done with appropriate selection of Antiepileptic Drug based on type of seizure and its frequency.

Keywords: Epilepsy; Syndromes; Antiepileptic Drugs; Cognition; Behavior

×

References

  1. Jayant Rai., et al. “Impact of anti-epileptic drugs on cognition: a review”. International Journal of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology 3 (2016): 599-604.
  2. Carl E Stafstrom., et al. “Seizures and Epilepsy: An Overview for Neuroscientists”. Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine 6 (2015): 224.
  3. Hermann BP and Jacoby A. “The psychosocial impact of epilepsy in adults”. Epilepsy Behaviour 15 (2009): S11-S16.
  4. Fisher R., et al. “Epileptic seizures and epilepsy: definitions proposed by ILAE and IBE”. 46.4 (2005): 470-472.
  5. GS Bell and j W Sander. “The epidemiology of epilepsy: the size of the problem”. Seizure 10 (2001): 306-316.
  6. Hauser WA. “Incidence and prevalence”. In: Engel J Jr, Pedley TA, eds. Epilepsy: a comprehensive textbook. Philadelphia, PA, Lippincott-Raven (1997): 47-57.
  7. Hauser Wa., et al. “Incidence of epilepsy and unprovoked seizures in Rochester, Minnesota: 1935-1984”. Epilepsia 34 (1993): 453-468.
  8. Hauser Wa and Beghi E. “First seizure definitions and worldwide incidence and mortality”. Epilepsia 49 (2008): 8-12.
  9. Luders HO., et al. “Classification of seizures”. In: Wyllie E, ed. The Treatment of Epilepsy: Principles and Practice. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins (2001): 287.
  10. Dreifuss FE. “Classification of epileptic seizures and the epilepsies”. Pediatric Clinics of North America 36 (1989): 265.
  11. Scheffer IE., et al. “ILAE classification of the epilepsies: position paper of the ILAE Commission for Classification and Terminology”. Epilepsia 58 (2017) 512-521.
  12. Vezzani A., et al. “Infections, inflammation and epilepsy”. Acta Neuropathology 131 (2016) 211-234.
  13. Hirtz D., et al. “How common are the “common” neurologic disorders?” Neurology5 (2007): 326-337.
  14. Lowenstein DH and Chang BS. “Seizures and Epilepsy”. The New England Journal of Medicine 13 (2003): 1257-1266.
  15. Meisler MH and Kearney JA. “Sodium channel mutations in epilepsy and other neurological disorders”. The Journal of Clinical Investigation 8 (2005): 2010-2017.
  16. La Fougere C., et al. “PET and SPECT in epilepsy: A critical review”. Epilepsy Behaviour 15 (2009): 50-55.
  17. Vickrey BG., et al. “Quality of life of epilepsy surgery patients as compared with outpatients with hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, and/or depressive symptoms”. Epilepsia 35 (1994): 597-607.
  18. Fauci AS., et al. “Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine, 17th ed”. New York: McGraw-Hill (2008): 2498-2512.
  19. Davis R., et al. “Valproic acid: A reappraisal of its pharmacological properties and clinical efficacy in epilepsy”. Drugs 47 (1994): 332-372.
  20. Lang DG., et al. “Lamotrigine, phenytoin, and carbamazepine interactions on the sodium current present in N4TG1 mouse neuroblastoma cells”. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 266 (1993): 829-835.
  21. Gilman JT. “Lamotrigine: An antiepileptic agent for the treatment of partial seizures”. Annuals of Pharmacotherapy 29 (1995): 144-151.
  22. Walker MC and Sander JW. “Topiramate: A new antiepileptic drug for refractory epilepsy”. Seizure 5 (1996): 199-203.
  23. Holland KD. “Efficacy, pharmacology and adverse effects of antiepileptic drugs”. Neurology Clinic 19 (2001): 313-345.
  24. Baulac M., et al. “Phenobarbital and other barbiturates: Adverse effects”. In: Levy RH, Mattson RH, Meldrum BS, et al. Antiepileptic Drugs, 5th ed. Philadelphia, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins (2002): 528-540.
  25. Loscher W., et al. “Antiepileptogenic effects of the novel anticonvulsant levetiracetam (ucb LO59) in the kindling model of temporal lobe epilepsy”. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 284 (1998): 474-479.
  26. Shih JJ., et al. “New drug classes for the treatment of partial onset epilepsy: Focus on perampanel”. Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management1 (2013): 285-293.
  27. National Institute for Health and Clinical excellence. Newer drugs for epilepsy in adults (2004).
  28. International League Against Epilepsy.
  29. Salanova V. “Deep brain stimulation for epilepsy”. Epilepsy Behaviour 88 (2018): 21-24.
  30. Neal EG., et al. “A randomized trial of classical and medium chain triglyceride ketogenic diets in the treatment of childhood epilepsy”. Epilepsia 50 (2009): 1109-1117 .
  31. Martinovic Z. “Adjunctive behavioural treatment in adolescents and young adults with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy”. Seizure 10 (2001): 42-47.
  32. Tang V., et al. “Psychobehavioral therapy for epilepsy”. Epilepsy Behaviour 32 (2014): 147-155.
  33. Patrizio Pezzotti., et al. “The accuracy of the MMSE in detecting cognitive impairment when administered by general practitioners: A prospective observational study”. BMC Family Practice (2008).
  34. American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 5th edition. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association (2013).
  35. Hirsch E., et al. “Epilepsy, antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and cognition”. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica 180 (2003): 23-32.
  36. Datta SS., et al. “Behaviour problems in children and adolescents with seizure disorder: associations and risk factors”. Seizure 14 (2005): 190-197.
  37. Sillanpaa M. “Epilepsy in children: prevalence, disability, and handicap”. Epilepsia 33 (1992): 444-449.
  38. Cornaggia CM and Gobbi G. “Learning disability in epilepsy: definitions and classification”. Epilepsia 42 (2001): 2-5, 19-20.
  39. Drane DL and Meador KJ. “Cognitive and behavioral effects of antiepileptic drugs”. Epilepsy Behaviour 3 (2002): 49-53.
  40. Crum RM., et al. “Population-based norms for the mini-mental state examination by age and educational level”. JAMA18 (1993): 2386-2391.
  41. Folstein MF., et al. “’Mini-mental state": a practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician”. Journal of Psychiatry Research 12 (1975): 189-198.
  42. Helzer JE., et al. “Dimensional approaches in diagnostic classification: refining the research agenda for DSM-V”. Washington: American Psychiatric Association (2008).

 

×

Citation

Citation: K Sravanthi., et al. “Epilepsy and its Management - A Brief Review". Acta Scientific Pharmaceutical Sciences 5.1 (2021): 24-35.




Metrics

Acceptance rate32%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days
Impact Factor0.759

Indexed In




News and Events


  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is April 25, 2021.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of “Best Article of the Issue”.
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.
  • Contact US