James A Thompson*
College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Science, Texas A&M University, USA
*Corresponding Author: James A Thompson, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Science, Texas A&M University, USA.
Received: September 09, 2020; Published: September 29, 2020
Background: Men and women, in the United States, are having children at considerably older ages. This changing demographic has been associated with multiple neonatal adverse birth outcomes that are currently considered to constitute a major public health crisis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the risk of parent age on birth defects and to provide results that can serve as a starting point for more specific mediation modeling. The modeling estimated the effects of parent age on birth defects controlling for confounding between maternal and paternal age and separated the mediating effect of chromosomal disorders, including Down syndrome.
Methods: Data containing approximately 15,000,000 birth records were obtained from the United States Natality database for the years 2014 to 2018. A Bayesian modeling approach was used to estimate adjusted risks of parent ages both unadjusted and adjusted for the other parent’s age and for the mediational effect of chromosomal disorders, including Down syndrome.
Results: Increasing maternal age was associated with increased risks for hypospadias and cyanotic congenital heart disease. Increasing maternal and paternal ages were associated with decreasing risks for gastroschisis. For limb reduction defect, cleft lip and all defects combined, the risk of maternal age was U-shaped with the lowest risks observed at approximately age 35y. Paternal age was not associated with an increase in the birth prevalence of birth defects.
Conclusion: Advancing maternal age was associated with increased birth prevalence of hypospadias and cyanotic congenital heart disease and associated with a lower birth prevalence for gastroschisis. Both older and younger maternal ages were related to limb reduction defect and cleft lip. Advancing paternal age was not associated with an increased birth prevalence of birth defects but was associated with a decreased birth prevalence of gastroschisis.
Keywords: Bayesian; Birth Defects; Maternal Age; Paternal Age
Citation: James A Thompson. “The Effects of Parent Ages on Birth Defects". Acta Scientific Paediatrics 3.10 (2020): 58-69.
Copyright: © 2020 James A Thompson. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.