Acta Scientific Dental Sciences (ISSN: 2581-4893)

Research Article Volume 4 Issue 12

Black Stains in Children and its Correlation to Dental Caries

Ibrahim H El-Kalla1 and Hanaa Mahmoud Shalan2*<

1Professor of Pediatric Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Mansoura University and Badr University in Cairo (BUC), Egypt
2Associate Professor, Pediatric Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Mansoura University and Badr University in Cairo (BUC), Egypt

*Corresponding Author: Hanaa Mahmoud Shalan, Associate Professor, Pediatric Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Mansoura University and Badr University in Cairo (BUC), Egypt.

Received: September 21, 2020; Published: December 09, 2020

×

Abstract

Aim: This study assessed the prevalence of black stain on teeth of Egyptian school-children and determine the possible correlation with dental caries.

Method: Six primary schools were included. About 1615 children of 4 - 12 years were clinically examined for the presence of black stain (BS) and recorded according to Koch criteria. DMFT and dft were assessed in children using WHO criteria. Data were statistically analyzed using student t test and spearman correlation test.

Results: The prevalence of black stain was 8.4%. No correlation was observed between the presence of black stains and age and gender of children. Also, no correlation was found between black stain and dental caries, frequency of teeth brushing and iron supplementation.

Conclusion: The prevalence of BS in Egyptian school-children was 8.4%. No association was found between black stain and dental caries, children age and gender. Oral hygiene and iron supplementation may not have a role in promoting BS formation.

Keywords: Black Stain; Children; Caries; Iron; Age; Gender

×

References

  1. Hattab FN., et al. “Dental discoloration: an overview”. Journal of Esthetic and Restorative Dentistry 11 (1999): 291-310.
  2. Nathoo SA. “The chemistry and mechanisms of extrinsic and intrinsic discoloration”. Journal of the American Dental Association (JADA) 128 (1997): 6S-10S.
  3. Koch MJ., et al. “Black stain and dental caries in schoolchildren in Potenza, Italy”. Journal of Dentistry for Children 68 (2001): 353-355.
  4. Reid JS and Beeley JA. “Biochemical studies on the composition of gingival debris from children with black extrinsic tooth stain”. Caries Research 10 (1976): 363-369.
  5. Zhang F., et al. “A preliminary study on the relationship between iron and black extrinsic tooth stain in children”. Letter in Applied Microbiology 64 (2017): 424-429.
  6. Garcia Martin JM., et al. “Prevalence of black stain and associated risk factors in preschool Spanish children”. Pediatric International 3 (2013): 355-359.
  7. Pushpanjali K., et al. “The relationship of dental extrinsic stains with the concentration of trace elements in water sources in a district of Nepal”. Oral Health and Preventive Dentistry1 (2004): 33-37.
  8. Heinrich R -Weltzien., et al. “Dental caries and microbiota in children with black stain and non-discoloured dental plaque”. Caries Research 48 (2014): 118-125.
  9. Garan A. “Biochemical and microbiological investigation of black stain of children aged between 6-12 years [dissertation]”. Istanbul: Marmara University (2009).
  10. Saba C., et al. “Black stains in the mixed dentition: A PCR microbiological study of the etiopathogenic bacteria”. The Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry3 (2006): 219-224.
  11. Li Y., et al. “Analysis of the microbiota of black stain in the primary dentition”. PLoS One 10 (2015): e0137030.
  12. Albelda-Bernardo., et al. “Remediation of adult black dental stains by phototherapy”. BDJ (2018).
  13. Chen X., et al. “Factors associated with black tooth stain in Chinese preschool children”. Clinical Oral Investigation9 (2014): 2059-2066.
  14. Heinrich-Weltzien R., et al. “Black stain and dental caries in Filipino schoolchildren”. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology 37 (2009): 182-187.
  15. Franca-Pinto CC., et al. “Association between black stains and dental caries in primary teeth: findings from a Brazilian population-based birth cohort”. Caries Research 46 (2012): 170-176.
  16. Mutsaddi S., et al. “Association of dental caries in children with black stain and non-discolored dental plaque: A microbiological study”. Journal of Advanced Clinical and Research Insights 1 (2018): 59-64.
  17. Gülzow HJ. “Schwarze und grüne Zahnbeläge: Untersuchungen über ihre Häufigkeit und über ihre Beziehung zur Kariesfrequenz”. Dtsch Zahnärztl Z 18 (1963): 1370-1376.
  18. Caldas CT., et al. “Prevalence of extrinsic black dental stains and its relation to dental caries in the municipality of Santa Terezinha de Itaipu - PR (in Portuguese)”. Revista da Faculdade de Odontologia - UPF 13 (2008): 22-26.
  19. Akyuz S., et al. “Prevalence of Black Stain and Dental Caries in Children Attending a University Pediatric Dentistry Clinic in Istanbul”. Journal of Marmara University Institute of Health Sciences 5 (2015): 109-114.
  20. World Health Organization. Oral Health Surveys. Basic Methods. Geneva: WHO (1997).
  21. Gasparetto A., et al. “Prevalence of black tooth stains and dental caries in Brazilian schoolchildren”. Brazilian Dental Journal 14 (2003): 157-161.
  22. Zyla T., et al. “Black stain and dental caries: a review of the literature”. BioMed Research International (2015): 469392.
  23. Li Y., et al. “A preliminary study on the relationship between iron and black extrinsic tooth stain in children”. Letters in Applied Microbiology 64 (2017): 424-429.
  24. Pessoa L., et al. “Removal of black stains from teeth by photodynamic therapy: clinical and microbiological analysis”. BMJ Case Reports (2015): bcr2015212276.
  25. Slots J. “The microflora of black stain on human primary teeth”. Scandinavian Journal of Dental Research 82 (1974): 484-490.
  26. Prathap S and Prathap MS. “Occurrence of Black Chromogenic Stains and its Association with Oral Hygiene of Patients”. Annals of Medical and Health Science 8 (2018): 18-21.
  27. , et al. “Spatial chemical analysis of dental stain using wavelength dispersive spectrometry”. European Journal of Oral Sciences106 (1998): 971-976.
  28. Mayta-Tovalino F and Torres-Quevedo J. “Extrinsic black stains on teeth and its association with tooth decay in children in mixed dentition”. Revista Estomatologica Herediana 18 (2008): 16-20.
×

Citation

Citation: Ibrahim H El-Kalla and Hanaa Mahmoud Shalan. “Black Stains in Children and its Correlation to Dental Caries". Acta Scientific Dental Sciences 5.1 (2020): 14-19.




Metrics

Acceptance rate30%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days
Impact Factor0.812

Indexed In





News and Events


  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is April 25, 2021.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of “Best Article of the Issue”.
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.
  • Contact US