Acta Scientific Veterinary Sciences (ASVS)

Research Article Volume 2 Issue 2

Emamectin Benzoate - Induced Oxidative Stress, Heat Shock Protein Levels and Apoptotic Effects in the Brain of Male Mice

Özge Temiz*

Department of Biology, Cukurova University, Turkey

*Corresponding Author: Özge Temiz, Department of Biology, Cukurova University, Turkey.

Received: December 27, 2019; Published: January 07, 2020


  Emamectin benzoate (EMB), which is used as a pesticide in veterinary medicine, can cause oxidative stress in living thing, and cell death as a result of its toxicity in tissues. In EMB doses; 25 mg/kg/day (E1), 50 mg/kg/day (E2), 100 mg/kg/day (E3) were administered by gavage to Swiss albino male mice for 14 days. Tripeptide glutathione (GSH), thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and stress protein levels and caspase 3 enzyme activity in brain tissue were examined. The results of the study showed that after exposure to EMB, it inhibited GSH and caused increased TBARS level. Increased levels of HSP70, one of the stress proteins, is an important mechanism that demonstrates that it cannot inhibit the increase in caspase 3 enzyme activity and that EMB toxicity triggers apoptosis. Changes in these molecular toxicology parameters, toxic effects of EMB are thought to be effective at 14 day exposure to brain tissue of male mice and cause neurotoxicity.

Keywords:Apoptosis; Brain; Heat Shock Proteins; Emamectin Benzoate; Mice



  1. Dallegrave Eliane., et al. “Pre-and postnatal toxicity of the commercial glyphosate formulation in Wistar rats”. Archives of Toxicology 81.9 (2007): 665-673.
  2. Mostafalou S and M Abdollahi. "Concerns of environmental persistence of pesticides and human chronic diseases”. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology 5 (2012): e002.
  3. Geary Timothy G. "Ivermectin 20 years on: maturation of a wonder drug”. Trends in Parasitology 21.11 (2005): 530-532.
  4. Andersch Wolfram., et al. “Combinations of biological control agents and insecticides or fungicides”. U.S. Patent No. 9, 560,852. (2017).
  5. Badgujar Prarabdh C., et al. "Fipronil induced oxidative stress in kidney and brain of mice: protective effect of vitamin E and vitamin C”. Pesticide biochemistry and physiology 118 (2015): 10-18.
  6. Mossa Abdel-Tawab H., et al. “Sub-chronic exposure to fipronil induced oxidative stress, biochemical and histopathological changes in the liver and kidney of male albino rats”. Toxicology reports 2 (2015): 775-784.
  7. El-Sheikh., et al. “Toxic effects of sub-chronic exposure of male albino rats to emamectin benzoate and possible ameliorative role of Foeniculum vulgare essential oil”. Environmental toxicology and pharmacology 39.3 (2015): 1177-1188.
  8. Wang Xin-quan., et al. "Oxidative injury is involved in fipronil-induced G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cell line”. Pesticide biochemistry and physiology 105 (2013): 122-130.
  9. Zhang Zhijie., et al. “Potential genotoxic and cytotoxicity of emamectin benzoate in human normal liver cells”. Oncotarget 8.47 (2017): 82185.
  10. Lindquist Susan. "The heat-shock response”. Annual review of biochemistry 55.1 (1986): 1151-1191.
  11. Kültz Dietmar. "Molecular and evolutionary basis of the cellular stress response”. Annual Review of Physiology 67 (2005): 225-257.
  12. Khan Saleem., et al. "Firpronil induced spermotoxicity is associated with oxidative stress, DNA damage and apoptosis in male rats”. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology 124 (2015): 8-14.
  13. Korte F., et al. "Organic toxicants and plants”. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 47.1 (2000): 1-26.
  14. Wolterink G., et al. “Emamectin benzoate”. Pesticide Residues in Food 2011 (2012): 211.
  15. Bradford Marion M. "A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding”. Analytical Biochemistry 72.1-2 (1976): 248-254.
  16. Beutler E. "Red Cell Metabolism. A Manual of Biochemical Methods". Grune and Stration, New York, London, (1975): 67-69.
  17. Ohkawa Hiroshi., et al. “Assay for lipid peroxides in animal tissues by thiobarbituric acid reaction”. Analytical Biochemistry 95.2 (1979): 351-358. 
  18. De Boeck Gudrun., et al. “Effect of cortisol treatment and/or sublethal copper exposure on copper uptake and heat shock protein levels in common carp, Cyprinus carpio”. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry: An International Journal 22.5 (2003): 1122-1126.
  19. Abou-Zeid Shimaa M., et al. "Ameliorative effect of pumpkin seed oil against emamectin induced toxicity in mice”. Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy 98 (2018): 242-251.
  20. Sunitha K., et al. "N-Acetylcysteine amide: a derivative to fulfill the promises of N-Acetylcysteine”. Free Radical Research 47.5 (2013): 357-367.
  21. Badgujar Prarabdh C., et al. "Fipronil induced oxidative stress involves alterations in SOD 1 and catalase gene expression in male mice liver: Protection by vitamins E and C”. Environmental Toxicology 31.9 (2016): 1147-1158.
  22. Kalmar Bernadett and Linda Greensmith. "Induction of heat shock proteins for protection against oxidative stress”. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews 61.4 (2009): 310-318.
  23. Üner Nevin., et al. “Piperonyl butoxide increases oxidative toxicity of fenthion in the brain of Oreochromis niloticus”. Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology 28.2 (2014): 84-90.
  24. Vaithinathan S., et al. “Methoxychlor induces apoptosis via mitochondria-and FasL-mediated pathways in adult rat testis”. Chemico-Biological İnteractions 185.2 (2010): 110-118.
  25. Shi Yigong. "Mechanisms of caspase activation and inhibition during apoptosis”. Molecular Cell 9.3 (2002): 459-470.


Citation: Özge Temiz. “Emamectin Benzoate - Induced Oxidative Stress, Heat Shock Protein Levels and Apoptotic Effects in the Brain of Male Mice”. Acta Scientific Veterinary Sciences 2.2 (2020): 01-04.

Member In

News and Events

  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for March Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is March 10, 2020.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of “Best Article of the Issue”.
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.
  • Contact US