Acta Scientific Otolaryngology (ASOL) (ISSN: 2582-5550)

Research Article Volume 4 Issue 12

Evaluation of the Observation of Infection Control Protocols in Dental Offices During the COVID-19 Pandemic Based on Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Guidelines in Zahedan in 2020-2021

Sahel Ramazani1 and Arian Hesam Arefi2*

1Postgraduate Student, Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
2Assistant Professor, Department of Orthodontics, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran

*Corresponding Author: Arian Hesam Arefi, Assistant Professor, Department of Orthodontics, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Received: October 07, 2022; Published: November 11, 2022


Introduction: COVID-19 was identified as a significant threat to health worldwide. The common routes for the dissemination of the virus include direct transmission (sneezing, coughing, and inhaling contaminated droplets and aerosols) and contact transmission (the oral and nasal cavity mucosa and conjunctiva). During dental procedures, large amounts of aerosols are produced; therefore, dentists, the staff, and patients are exposed to the virus. Proper knowledge about the infection control guidelines and evaluation of dentists’ mistakes in observing them are prerequisites to improve performance regarding preventing COVID-19, especially in areas with a high prevalence of this disease. The present study aimed to evaluate the observation of infection control protocols in dental offices during the COVID-19 pandemic based on the CDC guidelines in Zahedan, Iran, in 2020-2021.

Methods: The present descriptive study was carried out with the collaboration of general dental practitioners and specialists in 11 clinics and 133 private dental offices in the public and private sectors in Zahedan, who were active during the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020-2021. The simple sampling method was used, and the data were collected using a checklist prepared based on the guidelines of the CDC.

Results: The dentists’ personal protection score was 63%, with 73% for the patients and clients. The mean scores for the personnel’s educational requirements, patients’ and clients’ educational requirements, screening, and personal protection equipment in the dental centers were 76%, 60.5%, 71.8%, and 81%, respectively.

Conclusion: The observation of the infection prevention protocols in the dental offices and clinics in Zahedan by dentists, staff, and patients was moderate, necessitating further and more appropriate programs to improve it based on the CDC guidelines. In addition, continuous education programs are necessary for dentists, with further information for the general population through the mass media and virtual social networks. In addition, periodic studies are necessary to evaluate the efficacy of these programs so that modifications in the policies can be implemented if necessary.

Keywords: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Guidelines; COVID-19; Dental Office; Infection Control; Pandemic


  1. Naqvi Kashif., et al. "Challenges in providing oral and dental health services in COVID-19 pandemic”. Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association5 (2020): S113-S1S7.‏
  2. Gorbalenya Alexander E., et al. "Coronaviridae Study Group of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. The species severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus: classifying 2019-nCoV and naming it SARS-CoV-2”. Nature Microbiology4 (2020): 536-544.‏
  3. Organization WH. "WHO Director-General’s opening remarks at the media briefing on COVID-19-11 March 2020”. WHO Dir Gen speeches (2020).‏
  4. Lotfi Reza., et al. "An extended robust mathematical model to project the course of COVID-19 epidemic in Iran”. Annals of Operations Research (2022): 1-25.‏
  5. Induri Sri Nitya Reddy., et al. "Protective measures against COVID-19: Dental practice and infection control”. Healthcare. Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 9.6 (2021).‏
  6. Chen Dabiao., et al. "Recurrence of positive SARS-CoV-2 RNA in COVID-19: A case report”. International Journal of Infectious Diseases 93 (2020): 297-299.‏
  7. World Health Organization. Modes of transmission of virus causing COVID-19: implications for IPC precaution recommendations: scientific brief, 29 March 2020. No. WHO/2019-nCoV/Sci_Brief/Transmission_modes/2020.2. World Health Organization, (2020).‏
  8. To Kelvin Kai-Wang., et al. "Temporal profiles of viral load in posterior oropharyngeal saliva samples and serum antibody responses during infection by SARS-CoV-2: an observational cohort study”. The Lancet Infectious Diseases5 (2020): 565-574.‏
  9. Liu Li., et al. "Epithelial cells lining salivary gland ducts are early target cells of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection in the upper respiratory tracts of rhesus macaques”. Journal of Virology8 (2011): 4025-4030.‏
  10. Epstein Joel B., et al. "Dental procedure aerosols and COVID-19”. The Lancet Infectious Diseases4 (2021): e73.‏
  11. Alharbi Ali Saad Alharbi and Shahad Alqaidi. "Guidelines for dental care provision during the COVID-19 pandemic”. The Saudi Dental Journal4 (2020): 181-186.‏
  12. Santarpia Joshua L., et al. "Transmission potential of SARS-CoV-2 in viral shedding observed at the University of Nebraska Medical Center”. MedRxiv (2020).‏
  13. Sobouti, Farhad., et al. "Coronavirus as a new challenge for infection control in dentistry: A literature review”. Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences186 (2020): 185-194.‏
  14. Hooshyar Ehsan and Sarah Hosseini. "Novel Corona Virus (COVID-19): Assessing Prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 and Infection”. Journal of Dentistry (2022).‏
  15. Coulthard Paul. "Dentistry and coronavirus (COVID-19)-moral decision-making”. British Dental Journal7 (2020): 503-505.‏
  16. Guo Huaqiu., et al. "The impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on the utilization of emergency dental services”. Journal of Dental Sciences4 (2020): 564-567.‏
  17. Ahmed Muhammad Adeel., et al. "Evaluation of Patient’s Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Cross-Infection Control in Dentistry during COVID-19 Pandemic”. European Journal of DentistryS 01 (2020): S1-S6.‏
  18. Banakar Morteza., et al. "COVID-19 transmission risk and protective protocols in dentistry: a systematic review”. BMC Oral Health1 (2020): 1-12.‏
  19. Estrich Cameron G., et al. "Estimating COVID-19 prevalence and infection control practices among US dentists”. The Journal of the American Dental Association11 (2020): 815-824.‏
  20. Sarkarat Farzin., et al. "Evaluation of dentistry staff involvement with COVID-19 in the first 3 month of epidemiologic spreading in Iran”. Research in Dental Sciences 2 (2020): 137-145.‏
  21. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). "CDC Developing guidance regarding responding to COVID-19 in dental settings. Division of Oral Health”. National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (2020).‏
  22. Barenghi Livia., et al. "Problems on going during the application of guidelines for COVID-19 prevention in dentistry”. (2020): 79-88.‏
  23. Soheilifar Sanaz., et al. "How has COVID-19 affected dentistry practice? The perspective of future changes in a comprehensive literature review”. SRM Journal of Research in Dental Sciences2 (2022): 58.‏
  24. Basheer Syed Nahid., et al. "Knowledge of COVID-19 Infection Guidelines among the Dental Health Care Professionals of Jazan Region, Saudi Arabia”. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 4 (2022): 2034.‏
  25. Duruk Gülsüm., et al. "Investigation of Turkish dentists’ clinical attitudes and behaviors towards the COVID-19 pandemic: a survey study”. Brazilian Oral Research 34 (2020).‏
  26. Mahmood Marriam. "A Study on Patient Behaviors Towards Dental Visits and Oral Health during COVID-19 Outbreak”. Dentistry 3000 10.1 (2022).‏
  27. Bhanushali Parin., et al. "COVID-19: Changing trends and its impact on future of dentistry”. International Journal of Dentistry 2020 (2020).‏
  28. Ahmadi Hanie., et al. "The impact of COVID-19 pandemic on dental practice in Iran: a questionnaire-based report”. BMC Oral Health1 (2020): 1-9.‏
  29. Nia Ika Marta and Inge Dhamanti. "Comparison of Dental Care Policies Before and During The COVID-19 Pandemic: A Literature Review”. Poltekita: Jurnal Ilmu Kesehatan1 (2022): 103-112.‏


Citation: Sahel Ramazani and Arian Hesam Arefi. “Evaluation of the Observation of Infection Control Protocols in Dental Offices During the COVID-19 Pandemic Based on Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Guidelines in Zahedan in 2020-2021".Acta Scientific Otolaryngology 4.12 (2022): 11-19.


Copyright: © 2022 Sahel Ramazani and Arian Hesam Arefi. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Acceptance rate34%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days
Impact Factor0.871

Indexed In

News and Events

  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is February 15, 2023.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of “Best Article of the Issue”.
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.
  • Contact US