Acta Scientific Nutritional Health (ASNH)(ISSN: 2582-1423)

Short Communication Volume 4 Issue 2

Impact of Citrus Polyphenols on Human Health

Abhisek Karn*

Institute of Food science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China

*Corresponding Author: Abhisek Karn, Institute of Food science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China.

Received: January 07, 2020; Published: January 21, 2020

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  Polyphenols are one of the crucial functional bioactive components found in citrus fruits such as oranges, grapefruits, lime, tangerine, bergamot and others. In general, we consume polyphenols more than 820 mg daily from several dietary sources including fruits and vegetables [1]. Multiple studies reported that consumption of citrus polyphenols in diet helps to prevent from heart diseases, cancers and several chronic diseases [2,3]. In fact, in citrus fruits natural polyphenols are classified into four major classes according to their chemical structures including flavonoids, lignans, stilbenes and phenolic acid [4]. The bioactivities of citrus polyphenols in humans depends on the enzymes related to absorption, digestion, and involvement of gut microbiota for their metabolism activities.

  The in vivo studies of citrus polyphenols bioavailabiity is an important to conclude the role of citrus to promote human health. In this process, citrus polyphenols enters to small intestine where glycones form of polyphenols biotransformed to aglycones form for absorption in their host body. While, other complex structural forms which are not easily absorbed passes to the colon for the metabolism and biotransformation activities including cleaving of the conjugation moieties by the gut microbiota. Example- hydroxycinnamic acids (a subclass of polyphenols) are esterified to lipid, sugar and organic acid. Moreover, remaining aglycone form of polyphenols passes to the liver via portal vein system for phase II conjugation metabolism reactions such as methylation in the presence of catechol-O-methyl transferase, glucuronidation by UDP-glucosyltransferase and sulfation reaction in the presence of sulfotransferase. Further, these metabolites are circulated through blood stream and enters to the different organs and tissues until it excreted through urine, while some metabolites from liver as bile components further passes to the small intestine and colon for enterohepatic recirculation and deconjugation and finally excreted through feces of the human body [5,6].

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References

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  2. Laura M., et al. “Bioavailability of dietary polyphenols and gut microbiota metabolism: antimicrobial properties”. Biomed Research International (2015) 1-18. 
  3. Wang X., et al. “Flavonoid intake and risk of CVD: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies”. British Journal of Nutrition 111 (2014): 1-11.
  4. Spencer JP., et al. “Biomarkers of the intake of dietary polyphenols: strengths, limitations and application in nutrition research”. British Journal of Nutrition 99.1 (2008): 12-22.
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  6. Aura AM. “Microbial metabolism of dietary phenolic compounds in the colon”. Phytochemistry Reviews 7.3 (2008): 407-429.
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  8. Hodgson J and Croft K. “Dietary flavonoids: Effects on endothelial function and blood pressure”. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 86 (2006): 2492-2498.
  9. Piao M., et al. “Inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation, in vitroangiogenesis, and the down-regulation of cell adhesion-related genes by genistein. Combined with a cDNA microarray analysis”. Endothelium 13 (2006): 249-266.
  10. Nussbaum RL and Ellis CE. “Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease”. The New England Journal of Medicine 348 (2003): 1356-1364.
  11. Commenges D., et al. “Intake of flavonoids and risk of dementia”. European Journal of Epidemiology 16 (2000): 357-363.
  12. Youdim KA and Joseph JA. “A possible emerging role of phytochemicals in improving age-related neurological dysfunctions: A multiplicity of effects”. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 30 (2001): 583-594.
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Citation

Citation: Abhisek Karn. “Impact of Citrus Polyphenols on Human Health". Acta Scientific Nutritional Health 4.2 (2020): 01-02.



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