Acacia gums and Adansonia digitata pulp Nutritional Value: Formulation Potential
from Biotechnological Approach
Ahmed AM Elnour1-3*
1International Institute for Halal Research and Training, Level 3, KICT Building, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
2Bioenvironmental Engineering Research Center (BERC), Biotechnology Engineering Department, Kulliyyah of Engineering, International Islamic University, Malaysia (IIUM), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
3Institute of Gum Arabic Research and Desertification Studies (IGARDS), University of Kordofan, Sudan, Elobied, Sudan
*Corresponding Author:Ahmed AM Elnour, International Institute for Halal Research and Training, Level 3, KICT Building, International Islamic University
Malaysia (IIUM), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
March 09, 2022; Published: March 18, 2022
Background: The human innate immune system (HIIs) prevents the host from being infected by pathogenic organisms, including viruses, bacteria, parasites, and fungi. This defense mechanism of the HIIs can be augmented by an increased metabolism level, which requires energy sources and substrates derived from food.
Aim: This pioneer study investigates the nutritional values (NVs) of an optimum blended formula (5:3:2 grams) of Acacia gums (AGs) (composed of Acacia seyal gum and Acacia sengal gum) and Adansonia digitata L pulp (ADLPs) respectively, to evaluate their NVs for supporting the HIIs of infected COVID-19 patients, especially those associated with metabolic syndrom (Met-S) diseases.
Methods: The study's main objective is to develop an optimal formula using a specific combination of AGs and ADLPs based on their NVs. The NVs, including moisture, ash, minerals, protein, amino acids (AAs), carbohydrates, sugars, prebiotic polysaccharides, energy, dietary fibers (DFs), and crude fibers, were investigated using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-MS) and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC).
Results: As a result, the mineral level of the (3in1) blend, which comprises (AGs and ADLPs), was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) dominated by K (70.56 ± 2.35), Ca (68.54 ± 3.12), Mg (16.60 ± 4.8), P (11.50 ± 2.50), Na (31.4 ± 4.8), Zn (19.19 ± 2.10), Fe (19 ± 0.14), Cu (15.12 ± 1.81), and Se (0.037 ± 0.005) g/100gDW. The (3in1) blend had a higher hydroxyproline content of 30.17g/100g for the (3in1) blend compared to the AGs (2in1) blend. The blended formula's total protein content was 3.34 ± 0.121% significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher. Moreover, carbohydrates (CHOs) were significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher in the (3in1) blend compared to the AGs (2in1) blend. The major reducing sugar constituents were arabinose (48.23 and 49.97g/100gDW) for the (3in1) blend. Interestingly, the prebiotic polysaccharide was 88.61 ± 3.121 g/100gDW for the (3in1) blend, which is (p ≤ 0.05) higher compared to 84.00 ± 2.15 g/100gDW for the AGs (2in1) blend. The energy value for the (3in1) blend was 350.12 ± 5.210 kcal/100g, significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher than the 340.67 ± 3.155 kWh for AGs. The DFs were 12.62 ± 2.10g/100gDW as insoluble dietary fibers (IDFs) and 87 ± 2.124g/100gDW as soluble dietary fibers (SDFs) for the (3in1) blend, which is significantly (p ≤ 0.05) different compared to 1.865 ± 0.005g/100gDW of IDFs and 84 ± 30.45g/100gDW of SDFs for the AGs (2in1) blend.
Conclusion: Finally, we conclude that AGs with ADLPs have an effective molecular structure that may have strengthened HIIs against the Covid-19 pandemic. This suggests the potential beneficial use of AGs blended with ADLPs as a natural antiviral agent.
Keywords:Gum Arabic; Physico-Chemical Properties; Baobab; SARS-CoV-2; High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and ICP-MS
- “Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic”. World Health Organization (2022).
- Huang C., et al. “Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China”. Lancet 10223 (2020): 497-506.
- Alipio M., “Vitamin D supplementation could possibly improve clinical outcomes of patients infected with coronavirus-2019 (COVID-19)”. SSRN Electronic Journal (2020): 3571484.
- Sohrabi C., et al. “World Health Organization declares global emergency: A review of the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19)”. International Journal of Surgery 76 (2020): 71-76.
- Bhatta A. “Choice of food: A preventive measure during Covid-19 outbreak”. Europasian Journal of Medical Sciences1 (2020): 88-92.
- Kaddam LA and AS Kaddam. “Effect of Gum Arabic (Acacia senegal) on C-reactive protein level among sickle cell anemia patients”. BMC Research Notes1 (2020): 1-5.
- Bottari NB., et al. “Resveratrol-mediated reversal of changes in purinergic signaling and immune response induced by Toxoplasma gondii infection of neural progenitor cells”. Purinergic Signal1 (2019): 77-84.
- Jarrar AH., et al. “The Effect of Gum Arabic (Acacia Senegal) on Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Adults at Risk of Metabolic Syndrome: A Randomized Clinical Trial”. Nutrients 1 (2021): 194.
- Evans A., et al. “Relationship between structure and function of dietary fibre: a comparative study of the effects of three galactomannans on cholesterol metabolism in the rat”. British Journal of Nutrition1 (1992): 217-229.
- Al Za'abi M., et al. “Gum Acacia Improves Renal Function and Ameliorates Systemic Inflammation, Oxidative and Nitrosative Stress in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes in Rats with Adenine-Induced Chronic Kidney Disease”. Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry 6 (2018): 2293-2304.
- Elnour A., et al. “Study of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory crude methanol extract and fractions of Acacia seyal Gum”. American Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapeutics 1 (2018): 3.
- Elnour AA., et al. “Active Fractions of Methanol Crude Obtained from Acacia seyal gum: Antioxidant Capacity using FTIR Analysis”. Borneo Journal of Pharmacy2 (2019): 94-107.
- Wapnir RA., et al. “Modulation of rat intestinal nuclear factor NF-kappaB by gum arabic”. Digestive Diseases and Sciences1 (2008): 80-87.
- Ismail BB., et al. “Investigating the effect of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion on the stability, bioaccessibility, and biological activities of baobab (Adansonia digitata) fruit polyphenolics”. Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft and Technologie 145 (2021): 111348.
- Debelo H., et al. “African Adansonia digitata fruit pulp (baobab) modifies provitamin A carotenoid bioaccessibility from composite pearl millet porridges”. Journal of Food Science and Technology 4 (2020): 1382-1392.
- Husain M., et al. “Oral Semaglutide and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes”. The New England Journal of Medicine 9 (2019): 841-851.
- Cicolari S., et al. “Hydromethanolic Extracts from Adansonia digitata L. Edible Parts Positively Modulate Pathophysiological Mechanisms Related to the Metabolic Syndrome”. Molecules 12 (2020): 2858.
- Khalil A and D Tazeddinova. “The upshot of Polyphenolic compounds on immunity amid COVID-19 pandemic and other emerging communicable diseases: An appraisal”. Natural Products and Bioprospecting (2020): 1-19.
- da Silveira Vasconcelos M., et al. “Consumption of rich/enrich phytonutrients food and their relationship with health status of population”. in Phytonutrients in Food. (2020), Elsevier (2020): 67-101.
- Sen M and MG Dastidar. “Chromium removal using various biosorbents”. Journal of Environmental Health Science and Engineering3 (2010): 182-190.
- Joly M. “The use of streaming birefringence data to determine the size and size distribution of rod-shaped interacting particles”. Transactions of the Faraday Society 48 (1952): 279-286.
- Ballal A., et al. “Anti-malarial effect of gum arabic”. Malaria Journal 1 (2011): 139.
- Sender R., et al. “Are we really vastly outnumbered? Revisiting the ratio of bacterial to host cells in humans”. Cell 3 (2016): 337-340.
- Lei HY., et al. “Potential effects of SARS-CoV-2 on the gastrointestinal tract and liver”. Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy (2020): 111064.
- Xu X., et al. “Evolution of the novel coronavirus from the ongoing Wuhan outbreak and modeling of its spike protein for risk of human transmission”. Science China Life Sciences 3 (2020): 457-460.
- Yang N., et al. “Ginsenoside Rd therapy improves histological and functional recovery in a rat model of inflammatory bowel disease”. Phytotherapy Research 11 (2020): 3019-3028.
- Kaddam L., et al. “Potential Role of Acacia Senegal (Gum Arabic) as Immunomodulatory Agent among newly diagnosed COVID 19 Patients: A structured summary of a protocol for a randomised, controlled, clinical trial”. Trials1 (2020): 1-2.
- Horwitz W and GW Latimer. “AOAC Official methods of analysis of AOAC International”. AOAC International: Gaithersburg, MD, USA (2005).
- “Official methods of analysis Ash, Lipids, Fats and Oils Analysis Total Fat Animal Feed-item 16”. (2006), Association of Analytical Communities, Gaithersburg, MD, 17th edition (2016).
- Baker SA., et al. “Trace element determinations in food and biological samples using ICP-MS”. Atomic Spectroscopy5 (1999): 167-173.
- Miller RO. “Microwave digestion of plant tissue in a closed vessel”. Handbook and Reference Methods for Plant Analysis (1998): 69-74.
- “Official methods of analysis Lipids, Fats and Oils Analysis Total Fat Animal Feed-item 16”. (2006), Association of Analytical Communities, Gaithersburg, MD, 17th edition (2006):
- Act F. “Food Regulations 1985 (Act 281). 2005. All amendments up to November 2005”. (1983), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, MDC Publishers Sdn. Bhd (1985).
- Bougatef A., et al. “Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities of sardinelle (Sardinella aurita) by-products protein hydrolysates obtained by treatment with microbial and visceral fish serine proteases”. Food Chemistry2 (2008): 350-356.
- Kumar S and B Aalbersberg. “Nutrient retention in foods after earth-oven cooking compared to other forms of domestic cooking: 1. Proximates, carbohydrates and dietary fibre”. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 4 (2006): 302-310.
- Dubois M., et al. “Colorimetric method for determination of sugars and related substances”. Analytical Chemistry3 (1956): 350-356.
- “Association of Official Analytical Chemists”. (2000), Association of Official Analytical Chemists (2000).
- Eke M., et al. “Nutritional evaluation of yoghurt-like product from baobab (Adansonia digitata) fruit pulp emulsion and the micronutrient content of baobab leaves”. Advance Journal of Food Science and Technology10 (2013): 1266-1270.
- Ali K and H Daffalla. “Physicochemical and functional properties of the gum arabic from Acacia senegal”. Annual Review of Food Science and Technology 1 (2018): 27-34.
- Lelon J., et al. “Assessment of physical properties of gum arabic from Acacia senegal varieties in Baringo District, Kenya”. African Journal of Plant Science 4 (2010): 95-98.
- Mariod AA. “Gum Arabic Dietary Fiber”. in Gum Arabic. Elsevier (2018): 237-243.
- Gadour MO., et al. “Effects of a powder of the fruit of Adansonia digitata (Tabaldia, Gongolase, or baobab tree) on serum lipids”. Journal of Herbal Medicine 8 (2017): 14-16.
- Conte L and DM Toraldo. “Targeting the gut-lung microbiota axis by means of a high-fibre diet and probiotics may have anti-inflammatory effects in COVID-19 infection”. Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease (2020): 14.
- Cao P., et al. “The important role of polysaccharides from a traditional Chinese medicine-Lung Cleansing and Detoxifying Decoction against the COVID-19 pandemic”. Carbohydrate Polymers (2020): 240.
- Chen RR., et al. “A review for natural polysaccharides with anti-pulmonary fibrosis properties, which may benefit to patients infected by 2019-nCoV”. Carbohydrate Polymers (2020): 247.
- Gurashi NA., et al. “Variation in Chemical Composition of Baobab (Adansonia digitata L)”. fruits pulp in relation to fruit shape types and locations. (Year) of Conference (2020).
- Wei X., et al. “Elevations of serum cancer biomarkers correlate with severity of COVID‐19”. Journal of Medical Virology10 (2020): 2036-2041.
- Luo H., et al. “Reflections on treatment of COVID-19 with traditional Chinese medicine”. Chinese Medicine (United Kingdom)1 (2020).
- Vankadari N and JA Wilce. “Emerging WuHan (COVID-19) coronavirus: glycan shield and structure prediction of spike glycoprotein and its interaction with human CD26”. Emerging Microbes and Infections1 (2020): 601-604.
- Woo H., et al. “Developing a fully glycosylated full-length SARS-COV-2 spike protein model in a viral membrane”. Journal of Physical Chemistry B33 (2020): 7128-7137.
- Yang Y., et al. “The utility of native MS for understanding the mechanism of action of repurposed therapeutics in COVID-19: Heparin as a disruptor of the SARS-COV-2 interaction with its host cell receptor”. Analytical Chemistry16 (2020): 10930-10934.
- Kim CH. “Sars-cov-2 evolutionary adaptation toward host entry and recognition of receptor o-acetyl sialylation in virus-host interaction”. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 12 (2020): 1-34.
- Pillay L., et al. “Nowhere to hide: The significant impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) measures on elite and semi-elite South African athletes”. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport7 (2020): 670-679.
- Silva-Filho JC., et al. “The influence of ABO blood groups on COVID-19 susceptibility and severity: A molecular hypothesis based on carbohydrate-carbohydrate interactions”. Medical Hypotheses (2020): 144.
- Steinman L. “A sugar-coated strategy to treat a rare neurologic disease provides a blueprint for a decoy glycan therapeutic and a potential vaccine for CoViD-19: An Editorial Highlight for “Selective inhibition of anti-MAG IgM autoantibody binding to myelin by an antigen specific glycopolymer”on page 486”. Journal of Neurochemistry5 (2020): 465-467.
- Ahmed RHA., et al. “Effect of Gum Arabic on the Fecal Bacterial Mass in Healthy Human Volunteers”. in Gum Arabic', A.A. Mariod, Editor. Academic Press (2018): 297-304.
- Dawkins N and I Nnanna. “Studies on oat gum [ (1→ 3, 1→ 4)-β-D-glucan]: Composition, molecular weight estimation and rheological properties”. Food Hydrocolloids1 (1995): 1-7.
- Elnour A. “Fractionation; Physicochemical and Functional properties of Acacia Polyacantha gum”. Thesis. University of Khartoum, Sudan (2007).
- Karamalla K. “Analytical and structural studies in the polysaccharide group” (1965).
- Karamalla K., et al. “Analytical data for Acacia senegal var. senegal gum samples collected between 1993 and 1995 from Sudan”. Food Hydrocolloids4 (1988): 373-378.
- MK SEK., et al. “Emulsion-stabilizing effect of gum from Acacia senegal (L) Wild: The role of quality and grade of gum, oil type, temperature, stirring time and concentration”. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 3 (2008): 395-399.
- Siddig N. “Nitrogen and Specific Rotation as Quality Indicesfor Gum Arabic Derived from A. senegal”. M. Sc. Thesis University of Khartoum. Sudan (1996).
- Yebeyen D., et al. “Characteristics and quality of gum arabic from naturally grown Acacia senegal (Linne) Willd. trees in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia”. Food Hydrocolloids1 (2009): 175-180.
- Aluko A., et al. “Nutritional quality and functional properties of baobab (Adansonia digita) pulp from Tanzania”. Journal of Food Research5 (2016): 23-31.
- Oyeleke G., et al. “Some aspects of nutrient analysis of seed, pulp and oil of baobab (Adansonia digitata L.)”. IOSR Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology (IOSR-JESTFT)4 (2012): 32-35.
- Wallace TC. “Combating COVID-19 and Building Immune Resilience: A Potential Role for Magnesium Nutrition?” Journal of the American College of Nutrition (2020): 1-9.
- Osman MA. “Chemical and nutrient analysis of baobab (Adansonia digitata) fruit and seed protein solubility”. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition1 (2004): 29-33.
- Gleeson LE., et al. “Obesity, COVID-19 and Innate Immunometabolism”. British Journal of Nutrition6 (2020): 628-632.
- Aksoy H., et al. “Angiotensin II receptors: Impact for COVID-19 severity”. Dermatologic Therapy6 (2020): e13989.
- Al-Benna S. “Association of high level gene expression of ACE2 in adipose tissue with mortality of COVID-19 infection in obese patients”. Obesity Medicine (2020): 19.
- Alessi J., et al. “Dexamethasone in the era of COVID-19: Friend or foe? An essay on the effects of dexamethasone and the potential risks of its inadvertent use in patients with diabetes”. Diabetology and Metabolic Syndrome1 (20202).
- Onishi JC., et al. “Can dietary fatty acids affect the covid-19 infection outcome in vulnerable populations?” mBio4 (2020): 1-6.
- Suliman HM., et al. “Ameliorative activity of Adansonia digitata fruit on high sugar/high fat diet-simulated Metabolic Syndrome model in male Wistar rats”. Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy 125 (2020): 109968.
- Muthai KU., et al. “Nutritional variation in baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) fruit pulp and seeds based on Africa geographical regions”. Food Science and Nutrition 6 (2017): 1116-1129.
- Stadlmayr B., et al. “Nutritional composition of baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) fruit pulp sampled at different geographical locations in Kenya”. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis (2020): 94.
- AbdelMassih AF., et al. “A multicenter consensus: A role of furin in the endothelial tropism in obese patients with COVID-19 infection”. Obesity Medicine 19 (2020): 100281.
- Sun JK., et al. “Serum calcium as a biomarker of clinical severity and prognosis in patients with coronavirus disease 2019”. Aging12 (2020): 11287-11295.
- Abdullahi M., et al. “Evaluating the suitability of Adansonia digitata fruit pulp for the production of yoghurt”. International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences2 (2014): 508-516.
- Chen D., et al. “Assessment of Hypokalemia and Clinical Characteristics in Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019 in Wenzhou, China”. JAMA Network Open6 (2020): e2011122.
- Ferreira AO., et al. “Postulated adjuvant therapeutic strategies for COVID-19”. Journal of Personalized Medicine3 (2020): 1-33.
- Iotti S., et al. “The COVID-19 pandemic: Is there a role for magnesium? hypotheses and perspectives”. Magnesium Research2 (2020): 21-27.
- Alkhatib A. “Antiviral functional foods and exercise lifestyle prevention of coronavirus”. Nutrients 9 (2020): 1-17.
- Muthai KU., et al. “Nutritional variation in baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) fruit pulp and seeds based on Africa geographical regions”. Food Science and Nutrition6 (2017): 1116-1129.
- Bigley AN., et al. “A Chemoenzymatic Synthesis of the (RP)-Isomer of the Antiviral Prodrug Remdesivir”. Biochemistry33 (2020): 3038-3043.
- Post A., et al. “Is low sodium intake a risk factor for severe and fatal COVID-19 infection?” European Journal of Internal Medicine 75 (2020): 109.
- Talebi S., et al. “Trace element status and hypothyroidism: A systematic review and meta-analysis”. Biological Trace Element Research (2019): 1-14.
- Kieliszek M and B Lipinski. “Selenium supplementation in the prevention of coronavirus infections (COVID-19)”. Medical Hypotheses (2020): 143.
- Jayawardena R., et al. “Enhancing immunity in viral infections, with special emphasis on COVID-19: A review”. Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research and Reviews4 (2020): 367-382.
- Razzaque MS. “COVID-19 pandemic: Can maintaining optimal zinc balance enhance host resistance?” Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine3 (2020): 175-181.
- Ibrahim H., et al. “Amino acid composition of pulp and seed of baobab (Adansonia digitata L.)”. FUW Trends in Science and Technology Journal 1 (2016): 74-79.
- Wu G. “Important roles of dietary taurine, creatine, carnosine, anserine and 4-hydroxyproline in human nutrition and health”. Amino Acids 3 (2020): 329-360.
- León de Pinto G., et al. “Structural elucidation of proteic fraction isolated from Acacia glomerosa gum”. Food Hydrocolloids6 (2002): 599-603.
- Salem RH., et al. “Functional attributes of gum arabic and its application in kaiser bread”. Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences 6 (2016): 59-74
- Gambardella J., et al. “Arginine and endothelial function”. Biomedicines 8 (2020).
- Arisan ED., et al. “Putative Roles for Peptidylarginine Deiminases in COVID-19”. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 13 (2020): 1-29.
- Chen J., et al. “Epithelial dysfunction in lung diseases: Effects of amino acids and potential mechanisms”. in Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. Springer (2020): 57-70.
- Cengiz, M., et al. “Effect of oral l-Glutamine supplementation on Covid-19 treatment”. Clinical Nutrition Experimental 33 (2020): 24-31.
- , et al. “Unravelling high-affinity binding compounds towards transmembrane protease serine 2 enzyme in treating SARS-CoV-2 infection using molecular modelling and docking studies”. European Journal of Pharmacology (2020): 173688.
- Aktas A., et al. “How do arbidol and its analogs inhibit the SARS-CoV-2?” Bratisl Lek Listy10 (2020): 705-711.
- Huang J., et al. “Hypoalbuminemia predicts the outcome of COVID-19 independent of age and co-morbidity”. Journal of Medical Virology 10 (2020): 2152-2158.
- Wang YX., et al. “Utilizing integrating network pharmacological approaches to investigate the potential mechanism of Ma Xing Shi Gan Decoction in treating COVID-19”. European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences6 (2020): 3360-3384.
- Kang Z., et al. “Obesity is a potential risk factor contributing to clinical manifestations of COVID-19”. International Journal of Obesity (London)12 (2020): 2479-2485.
- Li M., et al. “Cardiovascular disease potentially contributes to the progression and poor prognosis of COVID-19”. Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases 7 (2020): 1061-1067.
- Riebeling T., et al. “Primidone blocks RIPK1-driven cell death and inflammation”. Cell Death and Differentiation (2020).
- Ajeet B., et al. “Favipiravir may acts as covid-19 main protease pdb id 6lu7 inhibitor: Docking analysis”. Biointerface Research in Applied Chemistry 6 (2020): 6821-6828.
- Vijgen L., et al. “Identification of six new polymorphisms in the human coronavirus 229E receptor gene (aminopeptidase N/CD13)”. International Journal of Infectious Diseases4 (2004): 217-222.
- Shi CS., et al. “SARS-Coronavirus Open Reading Frame-8b triggers intracellular stress pathways and activates NLRP3 inflammasomes”. Cell Death Discovery 1 (2019).
- Evans RJ., et al. “Heat inactivation of threonine, glycine, and the acidic amino acids”. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 2 (1951): 300-308.
- , et al. “Acacia senegal vs. Acacia seyal gums-Part 1: Composition and structure of hyperbranched plant exudates”. Food Hydrocolloids 51 (2015): 41-53.
- Menzies AR., et al. “A comparison of the physicochemical and immunological properties of the plant gum exudates of Acacia Senegal (gum arabic) and Acacia seyal (gum tahla)”. Food Additives and Contaminants8 (1996): 991-999.
- Alba K., et al. “Baobab polysaccharides from fruits and leaves”. Food Hydrocolloids 106 (2020): 105874.
- Schwarz S., et al. “Kaempferol derivatives as antiviral drugs against the 3a channel protein of coronavirus”. Planta Medica2-3 (20144): 177-182.
- Reis BZ., et al. “Influence of vitamin D status on hospital length of stay and prognosis in hospitalized patients with moderate to severe COVID-19: a multicenter prospective cohort study”. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2 (2021): 598-604.
- Jin W., et al. “The structure-activity relationship of the interactions of SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoproteins with glucuronomannan and sulfated galactofucan from Saccharina japonica”. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 163 (2020): 1649-1658.