Thekkuttuparambil Ananthanarayanan Ajith*
Department of Biochemistry, Amala Institute of Medical Sciences, Kerala, India
*Corresponding Author: Ajith TA, Professor of Biochemistry, Department of Biochemistry, Amala Institute of Medical Sciences, Kerala, India.
Received: July 19, 2018; Published: August 01, 2018
Citation: Ajith TA. “Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Cardiovascular Diseases: Need for Well Designed Clinical Trials in Different Population”. Acta Scientific Medical Sciences 2.6 (2018).
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) remain one of the unbeatable challenges to human in developing countries. Despite the knowledge of prevalent risk factors and therapeutic advancement in the management of CVDs, a worldwide recommendation about the dietary modifications has not yet been established. Research during the last few decades concluded the significant role of fatty acids such as saturated fatty acids (SFA), trans fatty acids (TFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFS) in the pathophysiology of CVDs. While SFA and TFA are present in fried food, PUFA is present naturally in vegetable oils/animal fat. Fatty fish is the richest sources of omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6). Potential beneficial effects of fish oil containing EPA and DHA against cancer, autoimmune diseases and neurodegenerative diseases were experimentally proved as well. But the beneficial effects in large population based clinical trials are scant. Nevertheless, the mixed responses produced in many clinical trials, a uniform dietary recommendation which can render beneficial effect against chronic inflammatory disease including CVD has not yet been derived. Hence there is great paucity for well-designed trials across the world.
The fatty acids such as SFA and TFA were associated with formation and progression of CVDs. Population-based cohort study in the Norwegian population supports that TFAs intake increases the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) and sudden cardiac death . Replacing the TFAs with PUFA could reduce the event up to 39% . Despite the experimental evidences, no conclusive clinical evidences were obtained so far to support the association of high intake of SFA and incidence of CHD . However, based on large randomized trials a permanent reduction or replacement of dietary saturated fats with unsaturated fats is suggested .
Copyright: © 2018 Ajith TA. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.