Acta Scientific Microbiology (ISSN: 2581-3226)

Research Article Volume 6 Issue 3

An Exploration into the Novel Synthesis of Gluconate Nano NPK Agricultural Fertilizers and its Consumptions in from Various Perspective

BR Saikishore Kumar1, Jagadeesh Kumar Ega2* and Suma Sanikommu3

1Research Scholar, Department of Chemistry, Chaitanya Deemed to be University, Telangana, India

2Professor, Department of Chemistry, Chaitanya Deemed to be University, Telangana, India

3Professor, Department of Biochemistry, Chaitanya Deemed to be University, Telangana, India

*Corresponding Author: Jagadeesh Kumar Ega, Professor, Department of Chemistry, Chaitanya Deemed to be University, Telangana, India.

Received: January 23, 2023; Published: February 06, 2023


Aim: The present study aimed to synthesize the novel Gluconate nano NPK agricultural fertilizers and evaluate its efficacy in increasing soil’s nutrient parameters.

Material and Method: Nano composites of nano Gluconate and chitosan with NPK source were prepared. Using X-Ray diffraction, and FTIR spectroscopy, the stability and interaction of Gluc-NP/CS NP suspensions containing fertilizers were assessed. An experiment involving laboratory incubation was used to measure the release of nutrients.

Result: The components were aggregated and loaded on the surface of biofertilizers, as shown by the mean diameter increase of the nano Gluconate nanoparticles/Chitosan nanoparticles in suspension with fertilizer addition. In the first four weeks, NPK composite loaded biofertilizer was found to have a significantly greater percentage of mineral nitrogen (MN) than the control. Less fluctuation was seen for exchangeable K during incubation, indicating a rapid release.

Conclusion: The findings showed coordinated nutrient release by nano composites with enhancing the nutrient parameters of soil and thus will be used on experimental field in further study.

 Keywords: Agriculture; Chitosan Nanoparticles; Fertilizers; Gluconic Acid; Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles


  1. Abdel-Aziz HMM., et al. “Nano chitosan-NPK fertilizer enhances the growth and productivity of wheat plants grown in sandy soil”. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research1 (2016): 0902.
  2. Divya K., et al. “Antimicrobial properties of chitosan nanoparticles: Mode of action and factors affecting activity”. Fibers and Polymers2 (2017): 221-230.
  3. Hosseini F., et al. “Dye removal and kinetics of adsorption by magnetic chitosan nanoparticles”. Desalination and Water Treatment51 (2016): 1-9.
  4. Olivera S., et al. “Potential applications of cellulose and chitosan nanoparticles/composites in wastewater treatment: A review”. Carbohydrate Polymers 153 (2016): 600-618.
  5. Manikandan A and Sathiyabama M. “Preparation of Chitosan nanoparticles and its effect on detached rice leaves infected with Pyricularia grisea”. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 84 (2016): 58-61.
  6. Sanchez C., et al. “Molecular Engineering of Functional Inorganic and Hybrid Materials”. Chemistry of Materials 1 (2014): 221-238.
  7. Ghadi A., et al. “Synthesis and optimization of chitosan nanoparticles: Potential applications in nanomedicine and biomedical engineering”. Caspian Journal of Internal Medicine 3 (2014): 156-161.
  8. Divya K and Jisha M S. “Chitosan nanoparticles preparation and applications”. Environmental Chemistry Letters1 (2018): 101-112.
  9. de Moura MR., et al. “Preparation of chitosan nanoparticles using methacrylic acid”. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science2 (2008): 477-483.
  10. Mohammed MA., et al. “An Overview of Chitosan Nanoparticles and Its Application in Non-Parenteral Drug Delivery”. Pharmaceutics 4 (2017): 53.
  11. Asiri SM., et al. “Synthesis of chitosan nanoparticles, chitosan-bulk, chitosan nanoparticles conjugated with glutaraldehyde with strong anti-cancer proliferative capabilities”. Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology 46 (2018): S1152-S1161.
  12. Saeed RM., et al. “Stable Chitosan-Based Nanoparticles Using Polyphosphoric Acid or Hexametaphosphate for Tandem Ionotropic/Covalent Crosslinking and Subsequent Investigation as Novel Vehicles for Drug Delivery”. Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology4 (2020).
  13. Corradini E., et al. “A preliminary study of the incorparation of NPK fertilizer into chitosan nanoparticles”. eXPRESS Polymer Letters8 (2020): 509-515.
  14. Mandal KG., et al. “Biomass yield and energy analysis of soybean production in relation to fertilizer-NPK and organic manure”. Biomass and Bioenergy 2009 33.12 (2009): 1670-1679.
  15. Jun SH., et al. “Bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2) loaded hybrid coating on porous hydroxyapatite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering”. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine 3 (2013): 773-782.
  16. Zhao F., et al. “Preparation and histological evaluation of biomimetic three-dimensional hydroxyapatite/chitosan-gelatin network composite scaffolds”. Biomaterials15 (2002): 3227-3234.
  17. Lin K., et al. “Study the adsorption of phenol from aqueous solution on hydroxyapatite nanopowders”. Journal of Hazardous Materials1 (2009): 231-240.
  18. Danilchenko S N., et al. “Characterization and in vivo evaluation of chitosan-hydroxyapatite bone scaffolds made by one step coprecipitation method”. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A4 (2011): 639-647.
  19. Liuyun J., et al. “Preparation and biological properties of a novel composite scaffold of nano-hydroxyapatite/chitosan/carboxymethyl cellulose for bone tissue engineering”. Journal of Biomedical Science 1 (2009): 65.
  20. Kottegoda N., et al. “A green slow-release fertilizer composition based on urea-modified hydroxyapatite nanoparticles encapsulated wood”. Current science 10 (2011): 73-78.
  21. Bremner JM. “Nitrogen‐total. Methods of soil analysis: Part 3 Chemical methods” 5 (1996): 1085-1121.
  22. Mehlich A. “New extractant for soil test evaluation of phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, calcium, sodium, manganese and zinc”. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 6 (1978): 477-492.
  23. Danilchenko SNK., et al. “Chitosan-hydroxyapatite composite biomaterials made by a one step co-precipitation method preparation, characterization and in vivo tests”. Journal of Biological Physics and Chemistry3 (2009): 119-126.
  24. Nikpour MR., et al. “Synthesis and characterization of hydroxyapatite/chitosan nanocomposite materials for medical engineering applications”. Composites Part B: Engineering4 (2012): 1881-1886.
  25. Salah TA., et al. “Development of nano-hydroxyapatite/chitosan composite for cadmium ions removal in wastewater treatment”. Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers4 (2014): 1571-1577.
  26. Deenik JL., et al. “Nitrogen mineralization potential and nutrient availability from five organic materials in an atoll soil from the Marshall Islands”. Soil Science 173 (2008): 54-68.
  27. Karuku GN and Mochoge BO. “Nitrogen forms in three Kenyan soils nitisols, luvisols and ferralsols”. International Journal of Innovation in Education 4 (2016): 17-30.
  28. Tambone F and Adani F. “Nitrogen mineralization from digestate in comparison to sewage sludge, compost and urea in a laboratory incubated soil experiment”. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science 180 (2017): 355-365.
  29. Liu M., et al. “Preparation of superabsorbent slow release nitrogen fertilizer by inverse suspension polymerization”. Polymer International 56 (2007): 729-737.
  30. Chen JF. “Adsorption and diffusion of ammonium in soils”. In: In: Zhu, Z. (Ed.), Nitrogen in Soils of China. Dev. Plant Soil Sci., Springer, Dordrecht 74 (1997).
  31. Kissel DE., et al. “Ammonium, ammonia and urea reactions in soils, in: Schepers, J.S., Raun, (Eds.), Nitrogen in agricultural systems”. American Society of Agronomy Crop Science Society of America Soil Science Society of America (2008).
  32. Abbasi MK and Khaliq A. “Nitrogen mineralization of a loam soil supplemented with organic-inorganic amendments under laboratory incubation”. Frontiers in Plant Science 7 (2016): 1038.
  33. Kay-Shoemake JL., et al. “Polyacrylamide as an organic nitrogen source for soil micro-organisms with potential effects on inorganic soil nitrogen in agricultural soil”. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 30 (1998): 1045-1052.
  34. Yu F., et al. “Isolation of polyacrylamide-degrading bacteria from dewatered sludge”. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 12 (2015): 4214-4230.
  35. Sahrawat KL. “Factors affecting nitrification in soils”. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 39 (2008): 1436-1446.
  36. Giroto AS., et al. “Role of slow-release nanocomposite fertilizers on nitrogen and phosphate availability in soil”. Scientific Report 7 (2017): 46032.
  37. Khan MS., et al. “Mechanism of phosphate solubilization and physiological functions of phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms”. In: Khan, M.S. (Ed.), Phosphate solubilizing microorganisms. Springer, Cham (2014).
  38. Alori ET., et al. “Microbial phosphorus solubilization and its potential for use in sustainable agriculture”. Frontiers in Microbiology 8 (2017): 971.
  39. Mucheru-Muna M., et al. “Enhancing maize productivity and profitability using organic inputs and mineral fertilizer in Central Kenya small-hold farms”. Experimental Agriculture 50 (2013): 250-269.
  40. Naima B., et al. “Effect of incubation period of phosphorous fertilizer on some properties of sandy soil with low calcareous content. Southern Algeria”. Asian Journal of Agricultural Research 9 (2015): 123-131.


Citation: Jagadeesh Kumar Ega., et al. “An Exploration into the Novel Synthesis of Gluconate Nano NPK Agricultural Fertilizers and its Consumptions in from Various Perspective". Acta Scientific Microbiology 6.3 (2023): 21-30.


Copyright: © 2022 Jagadeesh Kumar Ega., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Acceptance rate30%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days

Indexed In

News and Events

  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is March 30, 2023.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of “Best Article of the Issue”.
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.
  • Contact US