Acta Scientific Microbiology

Research ArticleVolume 1 Issue 4

High-Prevalence of Various High-Risk Sub-types of Human Papilloma Virus in Patients with Acquired Cholesteatoma in Greece

Anargyros Skoulakis1, Vasileios Lachanas2, Zoe Florou1, Maria Samara3, Myrto Mantzana-Petinelli 1, Efthymia Petinaki1 and Charalampos Skoulakis2*

1Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, University of Thessaly, Larissa, Greece
2Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University Hospital of Larissa, Greece
3Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, University of Thessaly, Greece

*Corresponding Author: Charalampos Skoulakis, Associate Professor, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University Hospital of Larissa, Greece.

Received: February 09, 2018; Published: March 03, 2018

DOI: 10.31080/ASMI.2018.01.0031

Citation: Charalampos Skoulakis., et al. “High-Prevalence of Various High-Risk Subtypes of Human Papilloma Virus in Patients with Acquired Cholesteatoma in Greece”. Acta Scientific Microbiology 1.4 (2018).


  Although there are a lot of theories, the pathogenesis of cholesteatoma remains unclear. Few studies exist worldwide regarding the presence of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) in cholesteatoma with controversial results. The presence of DNA of various high and low risk HPV sub-types was detected by real-time PCR to lesions obtained from sixty-two patients with acquired cholesteatoma. In addition, the presence of bacterial DNA was also detected using 16S rRNA PCR. Control group included tympanic membrane skin samples from patients operated by tympanoplasty. Cholesteatoma samples of thirty patients (48.3%) were found to be positive for one at least HPV sub-type. Twenty-five samples were positive for HPV16 (40.3%), nine were positive for HPV6 (14.5%), one for HPV18 (1.6%), one for HPV31 (1.6%), one for HPV51 (1.6%) and one for HPV59 (1.6%). None of the patients of control group was found to be positive for any sub-type HPV (0%). On the other hand, all specimens (cholesteatoma and tympanic membrane skin mu- cosa) were negative for the presence of bacterial DNA. Our results demonstrate a high prevalence of various high and low-risk HPV sub-types in cholesteatoma tissue samples in Central Greece.

Keywords: HPV; sub-types acquired holesteatoma; Greece


  1. Jennings BA., et al . “The genetics of cholesteatoma. A sys- tematic review using narrative synthesis”. Clinical Otolaryn- gology 43.1 (2018): 55-67.
  2. Nguyen KH., et al . “Possible participation of acidic pH in bone resorption in middle ear cholesteatoma”. Laryngo- scope 124.1 (2014): 245-250.
  3. Hamed MA., et al . “Pathogenesis and Bone Resorption in Acquired Cholesteatoma: Current Knowledge and Future Prospectives”. Clinical and Experimental Otorhinolaryngol - ogy 9.4 (2016): 298-308.
  4. Milner DA. “Diagnostic Pathology: Infectious Diseases”. 1 st edition. Elsevier Health Sciences (2015): 40.
  5. Schiller JT., et al . “Current understanding of the mechanism of HPV infection”. Gynecologic Oncology 118.1 (2010): S12- S17.
  6. Gao G, et al . “Human Papillomavirus and the Development of Different Cancers”. Cytogenetic and Genome Research 150.3-4 (2016): 185-193.
  7. Westra WH. “The changing face of head and neck cancer in the 21st century: the impact of HPV on the epidemiology and pathology of oral cancer”. Head and Neck Pathology 3.1 (2009): 78-81.
  8. Stremlau A., et al . “Detection of DNA of human papillomavi- ruses (HPV) in an “aggressively” growing cholesteatoma. Is cholesteatoma a virus-induced tumor?” HNO 43.1 (1995): 3-5.
  9. Ioannidis D., et al . “Herpes viruses and human papilloma vi- rus in nasal polyposis and controls”. Brazilian Journal of Oto- rhinolaryngology 81.6 (2015) : 658-662.
  10. Gatselis N., et al . “Direct detection of Cardiobacterium homi - nis in serum from a patient with infective endocarditis by broad-range bacterial PCR”. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 44.2 (2006): 669-672.
  11. Rydzewski B., et al . “Identification of human papilloma vi - ruses (HPV) in inflammatory states and ear neoplasms”. Oto - laryngologia Polska 61.2 (2007): 137-141.
  12. Bai Y., et al . “Expression of human papillomavirus DNA in cholesteatoma of the middle ear”. Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Ke Za Zhi 35.5 (2000): 352-355.
  13. Bergmann K., et al . “Human-papillomavirus DNA in choles - teatomas”. International Journal of Cancer 59.4 (1994): 463- 466.
  14. Ferekidis E., et al . “Correlation of clinical and surgical find - ings to histological features (koilocytosis, papillary hyper - plasia) suggesting papillomavirus involvement in the patho- genesis of cholesteatoma”. Medical Science Monitor 12.9 (2006): CR368-CR371.
  15. Chao WY., et al . “Detection of human papillomavirus in cho - lesteatomas”. European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology 257.3 (2000): 120-123.
  16. Franz P., et al . “Prevalence of human papillomavirus DNA in cholesteatomas”. ORL: Journal for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology and its Related Specialties 69.4 (2007): 251-255.

Copyright: © 2018 Charalampos Skoulakis., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Member In

News and Events

  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for March Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is February 29, 2020.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of “Best Article of the Issue”.
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.
  • Contact US