ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Mukteswar Campus, Nainital, Uttarakhand, India
*Corresponding Author: Karam Chand, Division of Virology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Mukteswar Campus, Nainital, Uttarakhand, India.
Received: January 11, 2018; Published: February 01, 2018
Citation: Karam Chand. “Bluetongue Disease: The Growing Threat of Vector Borne Disease””. Acta Scientific Microbiology 1.3 (2018).
The ruminants, such as cattle, sheep and goats, contribute significantly to the agrarian economy of many countries. They play an important role in the livelihood of a large percentage of small and marginal farmers. Among various infectious diseases affecting ruminants, bluetongue (BT) is one of the major vector-borne viral disease caused by bluetongue virus (BTV). Bluetongue virus is the type species of the genus Orbivirus in the family Reoviridae. The BTV genome consists of ten linear double-stranded RNA (ds RNA) segments that code for seven structural and four non-structural proteins. BTV is transmitted between its ruminant hosts through the bite of virus-infected hematophagous Culicoides midges. To date, 27 distinct BTV serotypes have been recognized worldwide. Due to its high economic impact, BT is an Office International des Epizooties (OIE) listed disease that is strictly controlled in international commercial exchanges. Bluetongue disease was first reported in South Africa at the end of 18th century. The disease was initially called “fever” or “epizootic catarrh”, but was later referred to as “malarial catarrhal fever of sheep”. The disease was later renamed “bluetongue” with reference to the characteristic cyanotic tongues that were occasionally observed in infected sheep. Bluetongue outbreaks correlate with climatic conditions, the density of sheep population and breeds reared in different geographical region.
Copyright: © 2018 Karam Chand. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.