Acta Scientific Dental Sciences

Research ArticleVolume 2 Issue 6

Preparation and Characterization of Chitosan-Based Post-Bleaching Enamel Remineralizing Gel

Gihan H Waly*

Assistant Professor, Biomaterials Department, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt

*Corresponding Author: Gihan H Waly, Assistant Professor, Biomaterials Department, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt.

Received: May 25, 2018;Published: May 30, 2018

Citation: Gihan H Waly. “Preparation and Characterization of Chitosan-Based Post-Bleaching Enamel Remineralizing Gel”. Acta Scientific Dental Sciences 2.6 (2018).


Objectives: The present study aimed to prepare a chitosan-based post-bleaching remineralizing gel and to compare it with a commercially available remineralizing agent regarding the ion release and remineralizing capacity.

Materials and Methods: PThe chitosan was purchased from Fluka BioChemika. One in-office bleaching product, Opalescence Boost PF 40%, Ultradent, was used. One commercially available remineralizing gel, MI Paste Plus, GC America, was used as a control. An experimental chitosan-based remineralizing gel was prepared using β-glycerol phosphate (β-GP) to neutralize the chitosan and hydroxyl ethyl cellulose (HEC) as a crosslinking agent. Sodium fluoride (NaF), nano amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) and casein phosphopeptide (CPP) were added to the mixture and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) was used as a thickening agent. FTIR analysis was performed for both the pure chitosan and the prepared experimental gel. The release of calcium, phosphorus and fluoride ions from the control and experimental remineralizing agents was measured using Inductively Coupled Plasma emission spectrophotometer and Ion Selective Electrode (n = 6). To evaluate the remineralizing capacity, the crowns of eight sound upper central incisors were vertically sectioned in two halves. Each half of each tooth was assigned to one of the two groups (the control and the experimental group) (n = 8). The enamel surfaces of the teeth were subjected to three bleaching sessions (20 minutes each) using the in-office bleaching agent. Before starting the remineralization regimen, SEM analysis was done to assess the surface morphology and EDX surface elemental analysis was performed to obtain baseline ion content measurements. The enamel surfaces were then subjected to the remineralization treatment (10 minutes daily for two months period). At the end of the remineralization period, the teeth were reexamined with SEM and EDX. The remineralizing capacity was calculated as the change in mineral content from the baseline measurements. The measured ion contents were used for calculating the Ca/P ratios of the precipitated deposits.

Results: The experimental gel released comparable amount of calcium, less phosphorus and more fluoride compared to the control. After remineralization, the SEM and EDX examination revealed the formation of a calcified layer that occluded and covered most of the bleaching-induced enamel surface porosities. The formed precipitates had Ca/P ratio similar to that of human enamel. No significant difference was found in the surface calcium and phosphorus contents between the teeth of the two groups while the enamel treated with the experimental gel showed higher fluoride content than that treated with the control.

Conclusions: The experimental chitosan-based gel is as effective as the commercial remineralizing agent in promoting bleached enamel remineralization.

Keywords: Chitosan; post-bleaching; enamel remineralizing gel; amorphous calcium phosphate; casein phosphopeptide; remineralizing capacity; ion release

Copyright: © 2018 Gihan H Waly. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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