Acta Scientific Cancer Biology

Editorial Volume 4 Issue 1

Is Grave ́S Disease A Risk Factor for Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma? Should We Be Actively Screening?

Lucas Ribeiro dos Santos*

Department of Endocrinology and Physiology. Faculty of Medical Sciences of Santos - UNILUS – Santos, São Paulo, Brazil

*Corresponding Author: Lucas Ribeiro dos Santos, Department of Endocrinology and Physiology. Faculty of Medical Sciences of Santos - UNILUS – Santos, São Paulo, Brazil.

Received: November 25, 2019; Published: December 02, 2019

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  Hyperthyroidism is a rather common disease, with prevalence rates, In the United States, of approximately 1.2% of the population [1]; diffuse toxic goiter, otherwise denominated Grave ́s disease (GD), is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism globally [2], but its association with thyroid papillary carcinoma remains uncertain.

  While the incidence of thyroid malignancies rises in the whole world, reaching escalating numbers of 7% to 15% of the patients harboring a nodule, depending on age, sex, family history, and other factors [3,4], the malignancy rate of palpable thyroid nodules in GD patients ranges from 2% to up to 55% [5,6].

  Current case series and cohorts rise even more questions regarding the aggressiveness of thyroid cancers in GD patients. Aggressive behavior has been identified by some reports, including increased rates of para-thyroidal invasion and lymphatic metastasis [6-8]. Mortality rates seems to also be higher in GD patients, and that remains a fact independently of tumor size [9-11], though this has not been confirmed by other case series [12,13].

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References

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  2. Gerenova J., et al. “Daumerie C Prevalence of thyroid cancer in Graves' disease: a retrospective study of a cohort of 103 patients treated surgically”. European Journal of Internal Medicine 5 (2003): 321-325.
  3. Hegedus L. “Clinical practice. The thyroid nodule”. The New England Journal of Medicine 351 (2004):1764-1771.
  4. Haugen BR., et al. “American Thyroid Association Management Guidelines for Adult Patients with Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: The American Thyroid Association Guidelines Task Force on Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer”. Thyroid1 2015(2016): 1-133.
  5. Papanastasiou A., et al. “Thyroid nodules as a risk factor for thyroid cancer in patients with Graves' disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies in surgically treated patients”. Clinical Endocrinology 4 (2019): 571-577.
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  9. Ozaki O., et al. “Thyroid carcinoma in Graves' disease”. World Journal of Surgery 3 (1990):437-440.
  10. Pazaitou-Panayiotou K., et al. “Mortality from thyroid cancer in patients with hyperthyroidism: the Theagenion Cancer hospital experience”. European Journal of Endocrinology 6 (2008): 799-803.
  11. Hayes FJ., et al. “Aggressive thyroid cancer associated with toxic nodular goitre”. European Journal of Endocrinology 3 (1996):366-370.
  12. Chao T-C., et al. “Cancer with concurrent hyperthyroidism”. The Archives of Surgery 2 (1999):130-134.
  13. Yano Y., et al. “Recent outcome of Graves' disease patients with papillary thyroid cancer”. European Journal of Endocrinology 3 (2007): 325-329.
  14. Mekraksakit P., et al. “Prognosis of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in patients with grave´s disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis”. Endocrine Practice (2019).
  15. Balkwill F., et al. “Smoldering and polarized inflammation in the initiation and promotion of malignant disease”. Cancer Cell3 (2005): 211-217.
  16. Chen H., et al. “Lubner S Cancer of the Endocrine System”. In: Abeloff MD, Armitage JO, Niederhuber JE, Kastan MB, McKenna WG (eds) Abeloff’s Clinical Oncology, 5th edition. Churchill Livingstone Elsevier, Philadelphia, PA (2013):1112-1142.
  17. Imam S., et al. “Nature of coexisting thyroid autoimmune disease determines success or failure of tumor immunity in thyroid cancer”. Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 1 (2019): 3.
  18. Haymart MR., et al. “Higher serum thyroid stimulating hormone level in thyroid nodule patients is associated with greater risks of differentiated thyroid cancer and advanced tumor stage”. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 3 (2008): 809-814.
  19. Fiore E., et al. “Lower levels of TSH are associated with a lower risk of papillary thyroid cancer in patients with thyroid nodular disease: thyroid autonomy may play a protective role”. Endocrine-Related Cancer 4 (2009):1251-1260.
  20. Lee IS., et al. “The Association of Thyrotropin and Autoimmune Thyroid Disease in Developing Papillary Thyroid Cancer”. International Journal of Endocrinology (2017): 5940367.
  21. Yano Y., et al. “Recent outcome of Graves' disease patients with papillary thyroid cancer”. European Journal of Endocrinology 3 (2007): 325-329.
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Citation

Citation: Lucas Ribeiro dos Santos. 02Is Grave ́S Disease A Risk Factor for Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma? Should We Be Actively Screening?.Acta Scientific Cancer Biology 4.1 (2020): 01-02.



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