Darshika Gandhi1*, Kaveri Hallikeri2 and Dhiraj J Trivedi3
1Post-graduate, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology and Microbiology, S.D.M. College of Dental Sciences and Hospital, Karnataka,
2Professor and Head, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology and Microbiology, S.D.M. College of Dental Sciences and Hospital, Karnataka, India
3Professor, Department of Biochemistry, S.D.M. College of Medical Sciences and Hospital, Karnataka, India
*Corresponding Author: Darshika Gandhi, Post-graduate, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology and Microbiology, S.D.M. College of Dental Sciences and Hospital, Karnataka, India.
Received: July 25, 2018; Published: August 28, 2018
Citation: Darshika Gandhi., et al., “Study of Salivary and Epithelial Cell Glycoproteins and Sialic Acid as Biomarkers in Oral Submucous Fibrosis and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma- A Proposed Hypothesis of Potential Pathogenesis during Malignant Transformation". Acta Scientific Cancer Biology 2.7 (2018).
Background: In the development of carcinoma, a healthy cell adapts, alters and strives to endure before transforming into malignancy by modulating the cell surface molecules. This study was conducted to estimate and correlate total carbohydrates (TC), total proteins (TP) and total sialic acid (TSA) levels in saliva and exfoliative cells of oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC).
Methodology: The TC, TP and TSA levels were biochemically estimated and statistically analyzed in saliva and exfoliated cells of 15 patients each of OSF and OSCC. In each patient two sites were evaluated, the lesional tissue (test) as well as an apparently normal tissue (control), thus having similar genetic and epi-genetic environment.
Result: Evaluation of saliva showed an increase in the mean values of glycoprotein levels from OSF to OSCC with significant difference in TC (p = 0.033) and TSA (p = 0.000). Evaluation of exfoliated cells showed an increase in the mean values of glycoproteins in lesional cells of OSCC as compared to OSF, with statistical significance in TSA (p = 0.002) levels. The mean values of TP (p = 0.000) and TSA (p = 0.019) were found to be significantly different between the non-lesional sites of OSF and OSCC. 98% respondents heard about cancer, 77% respondents heard about Cervical Cancer, 8% respondents knew about sign and symptom and only 2% respondents knew the causes of Cervical Cancer. On the other hand, 3% respondents told prevention of Cervical Cancer is possible but 12% respondents heard about VIA test. Around 18% respondents heard about HPV vaccine but nobody knew in which age this vaccine should be administered. All respondents wanted information about Cervical Cancer and HPV vaccine.
Conclusion: The present study confirms that aberrant glycosylation precedes and occurs ubiquitously in cells participating in the disease process. The findings suggest that glycoproteins and sialic acid may be sensitive biomarkers useful in predicting malignant transformation, either de novo or from a pre-existing OSF.
Keywords: Exfoliative Cells; Glycoproteins; Oral Submucous Fibrosis; Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Sialic Acid
Copyright: © 2018 Darshika Gandhi., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.