Acta Scientific Agriculture (ASAG)(ISSN: 2581-365X)

Review Article Volume 6 Issue 8

Soaking as a Processing Method to Improve the Nutritional Value of Soybeans for Livestock

Gadzama IU*

National Animal Production Research Institute, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria

*Corresponding Author: Gadzama IU, National Animal Production Research Institute, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.

Received: April 21, 2022; Published: July 18, 2022

Abstract

Soybean (Glycine max L.) is an important annual leguminous plant that belongs to the pea family Leguminosae. It is considered a global leguminous crop because it can grow in tropical, subtropical and temperate regions of the world. Due to its high nutritional value, soybean is used in human nutrition and is among the extensively used plant source of protein in animal feeds. The crop is valued for its high protein and fat contents. Research revealed that soybean has the highest protein content among all food crops and the second highest in terms of oil content among leguminous plants. Soybean protein contains all the essential amino acids (AA) that are required by animals for proper growth and development. Like all other mammals, humans do not have the ability to synthesize omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acids in the body and must be provided in the food. Soybean contains high amounts of these health-beneficial fatty acids such as linoleic and linolenic which are crucial to maintaining a healthy body and for the prevention of chronic diseases. Nevertheless, some of the anti-nutritional factors (ANFs) present in soybeans limit their optimum utilization in the body of human beings or animals. Some common ANFS identified in soybean include tannins, protease inhibitors, phytates, saponins, and oxalates. All of these contribute to reducing the bioavailability, digestion, and utilization of soybean by animals. This is one of the reasons why animal-fed unprocessed soybeans perform poorly. Several processing methods such as soaking, toasting, boiling, fermentation, germination, pressure cooking, and urea treatment could be employed to reduce the ANFs in soybeans. In an experi- ment, we investigated the effects of soaking on the ANFs in soybean. The soybean was soaked in clean water for 12, 24, 48, and 72 hrs. We changed the water two times after 24 hrs. After the duration of soaking was achieved, the soybeans were rinsed with clean tap water, dried under the sun for about 8 days, and then ground into flour before being taken to the laboratory for analysis. The proximate composition showed that unsoaked soybean contained 40.28% crude protein (CP), 14.11% fat and 3459.50 kcal/kg DM of metabolizable energy (ME). While soybean soaked for 72 hours had 44.37% CP, 29.55% fat, and 5514.57 kcal/kg DM of ME. Soaking tends to improve the nutritive value of soybean. In addition, soaking reduced the anti-nutritional content of the soybeans. Therefore, farmers could adopt soaking as a means of improving the nutritional value of soybeans for animal production.

Keywords: Soybean; Legumes; Soaking; Anti-nutritional factors; Animal Production

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Citation

Citation: Gadzama IU. “Soaking as a Processing Method to Improve the Nutritional Value of Soybeans for Livestock". Acta Scientific Agriculture 6.8 (2022): 09-16.

Copyright

Copyright: © 2022 Gadzama IU. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.




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