Soaking as a Processing Method to Improve the Nutritional Value of Soybeans for Livestock
National Animal Production Research Institute, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
*Corresponding Author: Gadzama IU, National Animal Production Research
Institute, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.
April 21, 2022; Published: July 18, 2022
Soybean (Glycine max L.) is an important annual leguminous plant that belongs to the pea family Leguminosae. It is considered a
global leguminous crop because it can grow in tropical, subtropical and temperate regions of the world. Due to its high nutritional
value, soybean is used in human nutrition and is among the extensively used plant source of protein in animal feeds. The crop is
valued for its high protein and fat contents. Research revealed that soybean has the highest protein content among all food crops
and the second highest in terms of oil content among leguminous plants. Soybean protein contains all the essential amino acids
(AA) that are required by animals for proper growth and development. Like all other mammals, humans do not have the ability to
synthesize omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acids in the body and must be provided in the food. Soybean contains high amounts of these
health-beneficial fatty acids such as linoleic and linolenic which are crucial to maintaining a healthy body and for the prevention of
chronic diseases. Nevertheless, some of the anti-nutritional factors (ANFs) present in soybeans limit their optimum utilization in the
body of human beings or animals. Some common ANFS identified in soybean include tannins, protease inhibitors, phytates, saponins,
and oxalates. All of these contribute to reducing the bioavailability, digestion, and utilization of soybean by animals. This is one of
the reasons why animal-fed unprocessed soybeans perform poorly. Several processing methods such as soaking, toasting, boiling,
fermentation, germination, pressure cooking, and urea treatment could be employed to reduce the ANFs in soybeans. In an experi-
ment, we investigated the effects of soaking on the ANFs in soybean. The soybean was soaked in clean water for 12, 24, 48, and 72
hrs. We changed the water two times after 24 hrs. After the duration of soaking was achieved, the soybeans were rinsed with clean
tap water, dried under the sun for about 8 days, and then ground into flour before being taken to the laboratory for analysis. The
proximate composition showed that unsoaked soybean contained 40.28% crude protein (CP), 14.11% fat and 3459.50 kcal/kg DM of
metabolizable energy (ME). While soybean soaked for 72 hours had 44.37% CP, 29.55% fat, and 5514.57 kcal/kg DM of ME. Soaking
tends to improve the nutritive value of soybean. In addition, soaking reduced the anti-nutritional content of the soybeans. Therefore,
farmers could adopt soaking as a means of improving the nutritional value of soybeans for animal production.
Keywords: Soybean; Legumes; Soaking; Anti-nutritional factors; Animal Production
- Liu K. “Soybean Improvements Through Plant Breeding and Genetic Engineering”. Chapman and Hall, New York USA (1997): 523-
- Mattingly JP and Bird HR. “Effect of Heating Under Various Conditions and Sprouting on the Nutritive Value of Soybean Meals and Soybeans”. Poultry Science 24 (1945): 344-352.
- Macrae R., et al. “Soya Beans”. Food Technology and Nutrition. Academic Press London (1993): 4215-4218.
- IITA - International Institute of Tropical Agriculture “Soybean the Golden Crop. IITA Ibadan Press Release (2009): 10-
- Iwe MO. “The Science and Technology of Soybeans”. Nigeria Food Journal 1 (2003): 3-5.
- IITA - International Institute of Tropical Agriculture. “Soybean for Good Health: How to Grow and Use Soybeans in Nigeria”. IITA Ibadan Press Release (2003): 1-
- Perkins E. “Composition of Soybeans and Soybean Products”. AOCS Press, New York USA (1995): 43-57.
- Liu K. “Expanding Soybean Food Utilization”. Journal of Food Technology7 (2000): 46-58.
- Dari L. “Effect of Different Solvents on the Extraction of Soya Bean Oil”. Masters Thesis, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi (2009): 1-124.
- FAO - Food and Agricultural Organization. “Technology of Production of Edible Flours and Protein Products from Soybeans”. FAO Agricultural Service Bulletin 208 (2004): 22-35.
- Brian CS. “Nutritional Physiology- Chapter 8”. Editor(s): Ronald W. Hardy, Sadasivam J. Kaushik, Fish Nutrition (Fourth Edition), Academic Press (2022): 593-641.
- Maidala A., et al. “Effects of Different Processing Methods on the Chemical Composition and Anti-nutritional Factors of Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill]”. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 12.12 (2013): 1057-
- Soetan KO and Oyewole OE. “The Need for Adequate Processing to Reduce the Anti-nutritional Factors in Plants Used as Human Foods and Animal Feeds: A Review”. African Journal of Food Science 9 (2009): 223-231.
- Grieshop CM and Fahey Jr GC. “Comparisons of Quality Characteristics of Soybeans from Brazil, China and the United States”. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 49 (2001): 2669-2673.
- Roy F., et al. “Bioactive proteins and Peptides in Pulse Crops: Pea, Chickpea and Lentil”. Food Research International 43 (2010): 432-442.
- Joshi DC., et al. “Studies on Mahua (Bassia latifolia) Seed Cake Saponin (Mowrin) in Cattle”. Indian Journal of Animal Nutrition 6 (1989): 13-17.
- Lalles JP. “Nutritional and Anti-nutritional Aspects of Soybean and Field Pea Proteins Used in Veal Calf Production: A Review”. Livestock Production Science 34 (1993): 181-202.
- Liener IE. “Implications of Anti-nutritional Components in Soybean Foods”. Critical Review of Food Science Nutrition 34 (1994): 31-67.
- Khandelwal S., et al. “Polyphenols and Tannins in Indian Pulses: Effect of Soaking, Germination and Pressure Cooking”. Food Research International 43 (2010): 526-530.
- Ramakrishna V., et al. “Anti-nutritional Factors During Germination in Indian Bean (Dolichos lablab ) Seeds”. World Journal of Dairy and Food Sciences 1 (2006): 06-11.
- Bamualin A., et al. “Nutritive Value of Tropical Browse Legumes in the Dry Season”. Proceedings of the Australian Society of Animal Production13 (1980): 229-232.
- Akande KE and Fabiyi “Effect of Processing Methods on Some Anti-nutritional Factors in Legumes Seeds for Poultry Feeding”. International Journal of Poultry Science 9 (2010): 996-1001.
- Okagbare GO and Akpodiete “Soybean in Pre-ruminant Nutrition: A Review”. Nigerian Journal of Animal Production 33 (2006): 83-86.
- Pele GI., et al. “Effects of Processing Methods on the Nutritional and Anti-nutritional Properties of Soybeans (Glycine max)”. African Journal of Food Science and Technology1 (2016): 009-012.
- Gadzama IU., et al. “Feed Intake, Growth Performance and Nutrient Utilization in Friesian X Bunaji Calves Fed Soymilk Based Milk Replacer”. Journal of Animal Production Research2 (2017): 96-111.
- Prodanov M., et al. “Influence of Soaking and Cooking on Thiamin, Riboflavin and Niacin Contents in Legumes”. Food Chemistry 84 (2004): 271-277.
- Aruah BC., et al. “Genetic Variability and Interrelationship Among Some Nigerian Pumpkin Accessions (Curcurbita spp)”. Plant Breeding International Journal 6 (2012): 34-41.
- Hanssen OK. “Soya is No Soya: Soya Proteins for Feed Products”. Feed International9 (2003): 14-18.
- Sharma S., et al. “Physical Characteristics and Nutritional Composition of Some New Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) Genotypes”. Journal of Food Science and Technology4 (2011): 245-252.
- Sarker MB., et al. “Effects of Soybean Milk Replacer on Growth, Meat Quality, Rumen and Gonad Development of Goats”. Small Ruminant Research 130 (2015): 127-135.