Sheehama J1*, Mwadinohamba I2 and Lukolo L3
1UNAM School of Medicine, Namibia
2MoHSS Namibia, Namibia
3UNAM Hage Geingob Campus, Namibia
*Corresponding Author: Sheehama J, UNAM School of Medicine, Namibia.
Received: November 03, 2020; Published: November 27, 2020
Introduction: This systemic review, of the prevalence of dental and oral manifestations in people living with HIV, was conducted from articles based on studies in various countries that aimed to establish the characteristics and prevalence of individual oral manifestations.
Methodology: The electronic retrieval systems and databases that were searched for relevant articles were PubMed and Google Scholar. A total of 41,237 articles were found on these sites, of which only 5 were included in the review. The five articles were selected based on the criteria of: articles published in English; studies carried out between January 2005 to November 2019 (recent data of less than 15 years); articles discussing only the prevalence of dental and oral diseases in people living with HIV. Exclusion criteria included articles that were more than 15 years old, that were focused on newly infected patients and articles that included other systemic diseases –such as Diabetes Mellitus- that could adversely affect oral health.
Results: According to the compiled results from all the reviewed articles, oral candidiasis and angular cheilitis were the most common oral manifestations, at 37% and 14.88% respectively. Oral Kaposi was noted to be the least occurring oral manifestation at 0.01%. Oral candidiasis was found to be the most common oral pathology, in both children and adults, in all articles reviewed.
Discussion: Based on the reviewed data collected by various studies, it is clear to see that evaluating oral health status of PLWH is very important at every stage in the management of HIV disease. All dental and oral lesions identified should be paid attention to, as most of these conditions are associated with immense pain and discomfort- this in return hinders the individuals ability to feed thus putting them at greater risk of malnutrition and eventually potential for opportunistic infections as they are not able to take medication and are generally unable to fend of infections. It is of utmost importance that health care providers be able to identify HIV-related oral manifestations, not only in the proper management of PLWH, but in also identifying HIV naïve patients. One major challenge of prevention of HIV, lies in HIV infected persons unaware of their status. A benefit of recognizing HIV-oral related diseases in such patients could thus assist with providing immediate health promotion and prevention possibilities. Hence, the importance of an integrated approach when dealing with PLWH should be sought.
Keywords: HIV; PLWH; Dental and Oral Diseases
Citation: Sheehama J., et al. “Prevalence of Dental and Oral Diseases in People Living with HIV, A Systematic Review". Acta Scientific Dental Sciences 4.12 (2020): 98-102.
Copyright: © 2020 Sheehama J., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.